Sunday, January 26, 2020
Vocabulary Learning Through Computer Assisted Language English Language Essay Abstract The importance of learning English as an international language requires the acquisition of vocabulary as the basic and necessary skill. By the improvement of technology, and computer in particular, many researches are done to show the influence of technology on vocabulary learning. This literary review is done to show the importance as well. Introduction Michael Levy defined Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) in his book as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning (p.1). It is recognizable in the academic literature for about the last thirty years. CALL has been made possible by invention and development of the computer. They developed from large mainframe computers to smaller, faster, and easier ones. For all those who whish to create new CALL materials, points of departure range dramatically from top-down approaches centered perhaps upon a theory of language or language learning, or a curriculum specification, while others might develop CALL materials from the bottom up, perhaps by using the computer to address a particular classroom problem. Other points of departure might include a learning strategy , a macroskill, computer conferencing, or an exploration of aspects of the technology itself. There are practical issues to considerfor example, the selection of the hardware a nd software development tools for the project, Hypercard, Authorware, Toolbook, CALIS, C, and Visual Basic, or a mark-up language to enable publishing on the World Wide Web such as Hypertext or Virtual Reality Mark-up Languages (HTML and VRML), are just a handful of many options now available. (Michael Levy, Oxford Linguistic Computer-Assisted Language Learning Context and Conceptualization, p.3) an interdisciplinary perspective on CALL shows it to be a relatively new field of study that has been subject to the influence of a number of other discipline. In addition to the fields of computing and language teaching and learning, real and potential influences in the development of CALL included aspects of psychology, artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, instructional design, and human-computer interaction. Many of these disciplines are relatively new in themselves, having developed significantly since World War II. They each have their own perspective and frame of reference, they often overlap and interrelate, and the extent to which any one discipline should influence the development of CALL has not been determined. At various times, CALL workers have called upon each of these fields to guide their own work in some way. (the same, p.7) Development of CALL Jing-hua suggested in his paper presented It is commonly known that the development of CALL mainly experiences three phases, namely, behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL. Each phrase is marked by distinct language teaching theories. For example, Behaviousristic CALL is based on the dominant behaviorist theories of learning and teaching of that time, which emphasizes the formation of speaking habit, thus, courseware mainly focuses on practice and drill of language patterns. After behaviorism lost its dominance, cognitive psychology began to gain popularity. Communicative CALL rejects the notion of habit-formation and focuses more on creative language use. So software at that time stressed the importance of communication and creative use of language instead of manipulation of language forms. Under the influence of constructivism, integrative CALL began to gain prominence. Constructivism focuses more on the connection between old knowledge and new knowledge and l earners are taken as active participators who can engage in creative thinking rather than follow ready made knowledge. The development of internet provides learners with enormous amount of authentic materials and also a platform where they can have a real conversation with peers, teachers or native speakers. The integration of the four skills becomes possible and learners individual needs are satisfied to some extent. Studies on computer assisted vocabulary learning have touched upon different aspects of vocabulary learning, among which a line of research is to examine the effects of electronic or online dictionary use or the effects of look-up behavior or the click behavior on word retention (p.60,61). What Does Vocabulary Mean? Vocabulary .. is an essential means of interchanging ideas and of acquiring new experiences Mans growth in ideas has always been accompanied by a corresponding expansion of his vocabulary. (Gray 1939, p.1). When a pupil reads and learns the meaning of familiar words by context, there is reason to believe that the knowledge will be genuine and important. (Thorndike 1934, p.11). The commonest way and perhaps the best way to promote growth of content in words is to allow the child to infer the meaning from context (Chambers 1904, p.50). Vocabulary Acquisition and L2/FL Reading Comprehension Reading is an active skill that involves the reader, the text, and the interaction between the two. Reading in a L2 or FL is a dynamic and interactive process, during which learners make use of a variety of skills and strategies, combined with background knowledge, L1-related knowledge and real-world knowledge to arrive at an understanding of written material (Aebersold and Field, 1997: ix). Constantinescu (2007) suggests that several researchers have argued that vocabulary plays a major part in reading proficiency Aside from knowing how to use the appropriate reading strategies, Grabe (1991, as cited in Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg, 2003: 124) argues that fluent L2/FL readers need to know about 2,000 to 7,000 words and sometimes even more if they want to reach native-like fluency. Similarly, Groot (2000: 62) argues that an adequate understanding of academic texts requires a vocabulary of at least 7,000 words. Generally, L2/FL readers need to recognize approximately 95 per cent of the words in a given text in order to comprehend its meaning and they need to know the different meanings of words according to context, as well as words grammatical properties. What are Language Learning Strategies? Seglar (2001) remarked, Language Learning Strategies could be any set of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner which affect this process (p,26). There are two ways for the second language vocabulary acquisition. S. Prell suggested in his articles wo ways for the second language vocabulary acquisition (p.2): The first method, the experimental method, is CAVOCA. The second method is a more familiar approach to the students, called the bilingual word list. Prell remarked, The first method is the bilingual word list presentation. The second is the Computer Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition (CAVOCA) program.The CAVOCA method attempts to replicate the way the first language is acquired, which is through an incremental process that gradually develops with repeated exposure and constant interaction between the various stages (Groot, 2000, p. 64). The program has four sections, which include storing the word in memory; using the word in several sentences to learn the spelling and meaning; giving examples for long-term memory; and a self-assessment. The second method is a more familiar approach to the students, called the bilingual word list. This method takes less time and produces favorable short-term results (Prell). Prell conducted some experiments and found that both of them wre valuable, yet through some experiments it was proved that they were different from each other: In the first two experiments, the bilingual word list yielded substantially higher results with the immediate tests given than the CAVOCA program. However, in testing the students two to three weeks later, the CAVOCA method produced better results for the retention of the vocabulary. In the third and fourth experiments, the bilingual word list did not show significant differences in the immediate tests from the first two experiments. However, the CAVOCA method showed higher rates of retention for the tests given two to three weeks after the initial test. Information Processing Iheanacho (1997) remarked in his research suggests that cognitive theorists assume that any complete theory of human cognition must include an analysis of the plans or strategies people use for thinking, remembering, understanding and producing language (p.18). Iheanacho (1997) remarked in his research The memory system explains the interrelationship among the three main storage structures of the brain: Sensory register, Short term memory (STM), and Longterm memory (LTM) (p.2). According to Schwartz and Reisberg (1991), the STM provides a small storage repository where the information is repeated over and over through a maintenance rehearsal process. When a piece of information is repeated and rehearsed, the probability of retaining that information can increase. But the STM is limited in how much information it can hold. The maintenance rehearsal helps to transfer the excess information which is not yet needed to another storage called Long-Term Memory (LTM). LTM provides a storage place of great size containing information that is not immediately active so that the information can be retrieved when needed. According to Miller (1989), LTM helps people to recall events, solve problems and recognize patterns. It is the repository in which we carry out all that we know (Schwartz Reisberg 1991). The interrelationship between STM and LTM explains how visual information can enhance retention and recall. According to Posner (1969), visual information can persist in STM after the stimulus is diminished. Additionally, visual information can be activated and retrieved from the LTM. The information processing model can account for the effectiveness of visuals in learning. Visual research Heinich, Molenda and Russell (1993) proposed that learning is facilitated when instruction follows a sequence from actual experience to iconic representation, and then to symbolic or abstract representation. Visuals make abstract information more concrete and are suited for analogical reasoning (Levie, 1987). Pictures and prose can be used to help both skilled and unskilled readers to enhance their reading skills ( Holmes, 1987). Holmes studied the ability of 116 fifth and sixth grade students to answer inferential questions. Three groups were established. The first group used pictures, the second group used prints, and the third group used a combination of prints and pictures. His purpose was to examine skilled and unskilled readers to see if there would be a significant difference in their ability to answer questions in each approach. He found that pictures enabled both skilled and unskilled readers to answer inferential questions. Holmes therefore suggested using pictures to initially improve inferential reading, and then gradually advancing to using print only. Imagery and vocabulary acquisition Furthermore, a study conducted by Paivio and his associates (1971) revealed that when learners are instructed to use images to commit a list of words to memory, recall is facilitated dramatically. In the study, subjects were required to learn pairs of words by rehearsing each pair, by making up a sentence for each pair of words, and by forming a mental image for each pair of words, with the image combining the words. They found that subjects who learned through imagery performed better on a recall test. Dual-coding theory Dual-coding theory contends that pictures and words activate independent visual codes (imagens) and verbal codes (logogens). The verbal system is language-like and specializes in linguistic activities associated with words and sentences, whereas, the visual system is thought of as a code for images and other picture-like representations (Rieber, 1994; Rieber, 1992). Rieber further explains that both verbal and visual subsystems have unique properties. Whereas logogens are stored in the verbal system as discrete elements, resembling words and sentences, imagens are stored as continuous units in the visual system. According to (Paivio, 1986; Rieber, 1992; Rieber, 1994), dual coding theory assumes that three levels of processing can occur within the verbal and visual systems. These are: representational connections, associative structure, and referential connections. Representational connections occur between incoming stimuli and either the verbal or visual system. Whereas verbal stimuli activate verbal memory codes, visual stimuli activate visual memory codes. Rieber (1994) explained that the important aspect of referential connections between the verbal and visual systems are not one to one, but can be one to many. For example, seeing a picture of a computer may invoke many verbal responses, such as an Applecomputer, an IBM computer or a Laptop computer. This concept can be applied when using pictures to learn vocabulary. Associative structures refer to activation or processing of information within any of the systems. The processing of information in the verbal system is assumed to be sequential or linear; whereas, processing of information in the visual system is believed to be parallel or synchronous. The separate coding systems, however, can aid each other so that something coded in both picture and verbal forms can be easily remembered (Rieber, 1994). The probability of recall is increased due to the availability of two mental representations instead of one. If one memory trace is lost, the other is still available (Rieber Kini, 1991). Multimedia CALL and vocabulary acquisition Studies (Reid, 1996; Davis Lyman-Hager, 1997; Zimmerman, 1997) showed the effectiveness of multimedia CALL on vocabulary learning in particular and language learning in general. Based upon this review, multimedia CALL programs that use motion pictures, still pictures, and text can help ESL students to improve their vocabulary skills. But it is not clear if a multimedia program with motion pictures or the one with still pictures will be more effective for intermediate level ESL students. More empirical studies to investigate the effectiveness of multimedia CALL with motion pictures and still pictures on vocabulary acquisition of ESL students can lead to the development of more effective methods for vocabulary acquisition. Motion graphics and still graphics Many studies (Rieber Kini 1991; Siribodhi, 1995; Rieber, 1990; Rieber, 1996) have shown that computer graphics are effective for gaining attention. Furthermore, Iheanacho (1997) suggested that computer graphics can encourage students to create mental images that in turn make it easier for them to learn certain types of information. The difference between motion graphics and still graphics is that motion creates the illusion of movement which helps to explain abstract concepts (Bricken, 1991; Rieber, 1994). In 1996, Rieber conducted a study to explore how users interact and learn during a computer-based simulation given graphical and textual forms of feedback. He found that subjects learned more when provided with animated graphical feedback than with textual feedback. Rieber hypothesized that interactive forms of multimedia, such as computer. simulations will promote different levels of processing depending on the type of representation used (e.g. text, graphics, motion and sound). In an earlier study, Rieber Kini (1991) contended that in contrast to static graphics, animated graphics can provide users with additional information through two important visual attributes: motion and trajectory. They also added that animation can provide information about whether the object is moving or whether the objects motion changes over time. Still or static pictures, on the other hand, lack motion and are more abstract than motion pictures. Still pictures suggest motion whereas motion pictures show life in action, can be used to study specific elements, and can bring us close to the point of visual contact (Dale, 1969). EXPERIMENTS ON COMPUTER-ASSISTED VOCABULARY ACQUISITION IN THE ESL CLASSROOM RESEARCH QUESTIONS Pelletreau (2006) conducted an experiment Of chief importance in this study was the degree to which students would take advantage of computer-assisted opportunities for incidental vocabulary learning while performing online reading tasks. The study necessarily addressed a more fundamental question: How would students learn new words in the course of completing computer-based reading tasks? Lastly, and most importantly for this study, how was the learning of non-target words related to the learning of target words? (p.16). In an earlier study (see Juffs et al., April, 2006), students frequently used the online dictionary to look up the meanings of target words. In fact, students accessed 71% of all the definitions available to them on average, and yet, such behavior did not correlate with mastery of words (r = .16, n.s.). The best predictor of word mastery (as defined by 2 correctly answered post-reading vocabulary questions) was number of texts read (r = .86, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ .0001). In other words, students reading more texts mastered more words, though the time spent clicking on hints had almost no effect on word mastery (Juffs et al., April, 2006). If students were not benefiting from looking up target words, it may have been because they were not actually making use of target-word definitions. But what were they doing while reading? They were either unable or unwilling to learn target-word definitions. It became apparent that students were not gaining a substantial learning advantage by using the online dictionary. In other words, students were not achieving a desired learning outcome. They resisted their language-learning task and instead participated in a counter-task (Lantolf Thorne, 2006, p. 238) In this context, a decision was made to allow students to look up any word in the online dictionary. Perhaps students had been focusing their attention on non-target words, or maybe they had other preferred (and unknown) methods of using the program. It was clear that students were likely not using the REAP program the way they had been expected to, and it was also apparent that the instruments to gather data about students behavior in the LMC were lacking. As a result, REAP was modified to allow students to look up the meaning of any word, and the number of clicks of both target and non-target words was recorded. Because quantitative data alone would provide an incomplete picture of student vocabulary-learning behavior, qualitative data collection instruments were introduced. Students could be valuable sources of information about their own vocabulary-learning techniques. The acquisition of target vocabulary was thought to depend on student comprehension of non-target words. It was hypothesized that students would use information about non-target words to assist them in their target-vocabulary tasks. It may have been the case that knowledge of non-target words surrounding target words would aid students in making lexical and semantic connections that facilitated target-word acquisition. In line with such reasoning, a strong positive correlation between non-target and target-vocabulary acquisition was posited, at least up to a particular critical threshold. For those students who knew the meanings of very few of the words surrounding target words, it was reasoned, target-word acquisition would be minimal. In such a scenario, such students would have too many gaps in their word knowledge and too few resources to be able to acquire a considerable number of target words. In effect, students learning more non-target words were predicted to learn more target words, though only up to a point. Student accuracy on measures of target vocabulary knowledge should have correlated strongly with non-target vocabulary acquisition up to some critical point. After a certain threshold, the acquisition of additional non-target words might have led to a decrease in the number of target words acquired. Such a threshold may have depended in part on the general language proficiency of the student (measured in this case by the MTELP score). The finite nature of the students language-learning resources, including processing power, attention and memory, may also have been important. It was thought that students spending much of their time learning as many non-target words as they possibly could would likely perform as poorly with respect to target-word acquisition as those who paid little or no attention to non-target words. In such cases, it was plausible that temporal and cognitive constraints (Sweller, 1988; 1994) would lead to students acquiring relatively fewer target words. In effect, the distribution of target words acquired versus non-target words acquired should have been more or less nonlinear. That is, target-word learning should have reached some maximum value for a moderate value of non-target word learning. Additionally, the amount of non-target word acquisition occurring in the study should have been much less, on average, than that of target-word acquisition. While there may have been some exceptions, the explicit instructions to focus on target words coupled with the way the words appeared should have led to relatively greater student attention to target words. It should also be pointed out that students answered cloze questions testing their knowledge of target words (for which they received feedback) after each reading, while they answered no such questions and received no feedback pertaining to non-target words. Greater attention and in general, more cognitive resources devoted to target words should have translated to differential target and non-target vocabulary learning. In terms of predicting how many target and non-target words students learned, general language proficiency should have provided some indication of such information. Pelletreau (2006) concluded in this experimenr, Non-target word lookups did not correlate with target word acquisition. Students did not appear to learn target words faster or better by attending to non-target words. As a result, the relationship between the explicit and incidental learning students engaged in remains unclear. The relative effectiveness of each, as well as the optimal balance of explicit and incidental learning in such a context, is an open question. Benefits of CALL for Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension According to Constantinescu (2007) Multimedia refers to computer-based systems that use various types of content, such as text, audio, video, graphics, animation, and interactivity. Constantinescu (2007) mentioned in his article Most research on vocabulary acquisition and CALL has focused on the effects of multimedia glosses, and the same is true for reading comprehension, since vocabulary and reading are closely and reciprocally related. This reciprocal relationship also accounts for the fact that many research studies on vocabulary development and CALL also examine reading comprehension, and vice versa. Multimedia Glosses and Vocabulary Development One of the first to examine the effects of multimedia glosses for vocabulary development were Lyman-Hager and Davis (1996), who integrated a computer program into the French foreign language curriculum and discussed vocabulary acquisition and students glossing choices for 262 intermediate level students studying French. Two conditions were used in this study: computerized reading and non-computerized reading using an excerpt of Oyonos Une Vie de Boy. Both groups had access to glosses: the computer group had access to multimedia annotations, whereas the control group could consult printed text with the same glosses. As to whether or not computer treatment offered significant benefits to FL students, the results of the written recall protocol indicated that the experimental group who used the computer program to read the text significantly outperformed the control group who used the glossed reading in the print form. Using Multimedia for Vocabulary-building Constantinescu (2007) mentioned in his article However, multimedia is not used only for glossing texts. Multimedia is a central component of good computer-assisted skill-building software. Thus, Chanier and Selva (1998) stressed the benefits of multimedia support for learning L2/FL vocabulary and presented ALEXIA, a lexical learning environment for French as a L2/FL, which includes a corpus of texts, a general and a personal dictionary, and a lexical activities unit. After reviewing various viewpoints about the effectiveness of multimedia for vocabulary learning, they propose useful criteria for evaluating the quality of a visual representation in a lexical environment. Groot (2000) presented another multimedia-enhanced computer-assisted word acquisition program, called CAVOCA, whose aim was to speed up the vocabulary acquisition process. CAVOCA is an interactive program that takes learners through different stages of vocabulary development: deduction, consolidation, and long-term re tention. Benefits of Multimedia-enhanced Dictionaries Other research that focused on vocabulary development with technology argued for the increased effectiveness of multimedia-enhanced electronic dictionaries designed specifically for English language learners, and which have several built-in aids that their book counterparts cannot provide (e.g. the Longman Interactive English Dictionary, the Oxford Picture Dictionary Interactive, etc.) (Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg, 2003: 126-12) Benefits of Multimedia for Reading Comprehension The positive effect that multimedia has on reading comprehension comes, according to Busch (2003: 278), from the great advantage that online readers have over traditional printed readers: the possibility to enhance computerized texts with glosses in multimedia format. The effects of multimedia glossing received increased attention as researchers considered the possibility that computer-aided reading could create more proficient readers by offering a choice of various types of glosses to develop better vocabularies, greater background knowledge surrounding the text, and more effective reading strategies (Lyman-Hager and Davis, 1996: 775). Constantinescu (2007) remarked some principles for instructors to increase the efficiency of the introduced strategies: First Principle: Instructors Should Pay More Attention to the Existence of Various Teaching Tools For vocabulary acquisition, instructors could make great use of technology by using multimedia glossed texts, electronic dictionaries, corpora and concordance software, as well as various vocabulary-building software. Second Principle: Instructors Should Introduce Multimedia-glossed Texts into Their Vocabulary/Reading Classes Multimedia glossing triggers better results when compared to print glosses. Moreover, full glossing seems to be the best facilitator of vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension, as opposed to little or non-glossed texts. In addition, best results in retention are triggered by picture + text annotations, whereas pronunciation, video, and audio glosses seem to correlate negatively with reading comprehension. Third Principle: Instructors Should Be Acquainted with the Criteria for Software and Courseware Evaluation (e.g. goals, presentation, appropriateness, outcomes), As Well As Take Into Consideration Two Very Important Factors: Time and Effort Teachers must be aware that there are many different types of software or online materials available for ESL / EFL, however, not all of them are valuable for classroom instruction. Some materials focus on specific skills, while others focus on a wide range of skills and strategies. Moreover, instructors should also ensure that the materials used in class are motivating for students and are at an optimum, i+1 difficulty level, so that progress can be attained. Teachers should also pay attention to students level of familiarity with computers and keep in mind whether the chosen software will trigger the desired outcomes. Fourth Principle: Instructors Should Keep Up with Current Methodology and Make Best Use of Visuals and Multimedia Good CALL programs should make best use of visual elements and multimedia glossing, as well as generate students participation. The programs should be interactive, allowing the students to make choices. Also, they should consist of a wide range of different types of exercises in which students not only choose the right answers but also type in answers. Summary L2 comprehention depends mostly on acquiring vocabulary at least 7,000 words as was mentioned by Groot (2000: 62). Due to the importance of vocabulary acquisition some ways were discussed, and through some experiments by Prell it becomes clear taht the CAVOCA method produced better results for the retention of the vocabulary (p,3). So, in continuation, my research focused on the influence of different models of Call strategies on accelerating vocabulary learning and how the instructors should use them in the best way to increase their efficiencies. Conclusion Among different forms of computerized ways of vocabulary learning, some ways were mentioned. While being different from each other, it is proved that some of them are more efficient that others. All in all, CALL can be a useful instrument for both teachers and students in regard to the priority it has to the difficult traditional ways.
Posted by Unknown at 6:03 AM
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"In philosophy we have a problem knowing the origin of right and wrong, there are various theories and ideas but we do not seem to have a definite answer to this question. Ã¢â¬ By Jamee Ford In life people are brought up in different homes, surrounded by different people and are taught different ways of life. As we grow up we are taught the difference between what is considered right and what is considered wrong, which is based on what is socially acceptable.We learn from a young age how we are expected to behave, the rules we have to abide by given from family and the morals we should have and grow up with. In this society it is difficult to find the origin of right and wrong for there are so many theories and ideas, but yet there is no definite answer. I believe morality comes from us citizens, the law, our feelings and our religion can give a certain indication to how we set our values, but I belive it is an objective fact that what is said to be wrong is wrong and what i s said to be right is right.A minority of people believe that morality comes from God. These people have a lot of faith and get their morals and understanding of right and wrong from their belief in god and their bible. For example in the Bible, there are the 10 Commandments, a list of what is acceptable and unacceptable according to God. But what if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in god, where would our sense of right and wrong come from? If we canÃ¢â¬â¢t change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s options and feelings on what is right and wrong just by saying that it is acceptable or unacceptable, then why is it okay to say God can.Without god, would their still be morality? Because if god made it acceptable to kill other people, that still wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it okay, so I believe this theory is unproven and morality and our right and wrongs canÃ¢â¬â¢t come from this theory. Another theory that has brought to the attention of the origin of right and wrong is The Ã¢â¬ËFeeling TheoryÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢ â¬ËBoo-hoorahÃ¢â¬â¢ theory. The feeling theory is an example of how morality does come from us. We make things right or wrong by approving or disproving of them. If a person has certain feelings about another personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, it is saying something about them.If they disprove of an action, it is considered morally wrong to that person. This theory is people making a claim about what they think; they are claiming whether the action is right or wrong. The Ã¢â¬ËBoo-Hoorah TheoryÃ¢â¬â¢ is another example of how morality comes from us but involves expressing what we think is right or wrong rather than making a claim about it. Something is neither true nor false and according to this theory there is no fact of the matter just an expression of what the person observing thinks.The feeling theory and the boo-hoorah theory are both wrong for everyone is different and raised differently with different beliefs (everyone has different feelings). So technically one person can trul y believe that it is okay to kill while another says itÃ¢â¬â¢s not okay, these two people are contradicting one another which rules out both theories. Some children are brought up in an abusive home environment; does this mean that morally they think its okay to treat people differently based on how they were raised?All people are raised in a different environment, under different circumstances so if morality comes from us then morality would have to include a whole lot of different views. Another important theory is that morality and our right and wrongs come from the law. Morality and the law often correspond, our morals are what we consider right and wrong, While the law is what has been decided as right and wrong for us. Both murder and stealing are things we consider morally wrong and are also against the law. In the perfect world we all want the law to coincide with morality, but in reality most likely will never be like that.For example drugs are illegal and the law will no t accept any sort of behaviour involving drugs, but in some cases people justify that is morally acceptable to deal drugs use it for personal use because of financial situations and pleasure. So they morally justify it in their own head for it to be okay. Even though morality can be guided by the law, helping us understand the differences between right and wrong, morality canÃ¢â¬â¢t come from the law, for there are a lot of things the law accept but us civilians see it as wrong.As we can see morality cannot come from the above theories, for they all leave the question of the origin of right and wrong UN answered. I believe that morality comes from us and that things are right and wrong anyway. I believe G. E Moores theory of the extra fact (the six sense) that can detect wrongness. I truly believe this for it is true that there is that something inside of us, guiding us and helping us know what is right and wrong. We onÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily have to be taught about all the wrongs i n life to just get that gut feeling that mugging an elderly person is just wrong, why do we feel that? Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we do it? It is because it is something that is just there. Also everyone in the world is different, we all come from different backgrounds and everyone has been brought up differently, in different environments. So therefore we all have different feelings and beliefs, for someone can truly believe that stealing is acceptable, when another thinks it is wrong.Morality is based on how you feel and how you treat people, expecting the same in return; you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want someone to hurt you, so why would you want to hurt them. There are no proven facts to where right and wrong comes from but it is something that is just there. It changes over time, and things that were once believed as right are now seen as wrong. So therefore we cannot place judgements for we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what morality and right and wrong will be seen as in ten years time, itÃ¢â¬â¢s based y ou as a person.
Posted by Unknown at 2:26 AM
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Free Samples of Essay Writing Diaries The prices of our very best essay writing service aren't the highest and not the lowest on the marketplace. It is vital that the essay writing service has to be an ideal company. You are going to be certainly pleased with the way our customized essay writing service works. You are able to approach the ideal custom essay writing service and ask the authorities to assist you. What You Need to Know About Free Samples of Essay Writing Only writers that are interested in your topic place will place a bid that will help you. There's no need to continue your search or search for a person who will have the ability to compose an essay for you within a limited time. The major idea of all of the criticism is to supply an opinion both of positive or negative implication. You ought to select the subject of your essay by paying attention to the sort of reader and your major targets. If you are fighting to compose an essay, it's possible to eith er place an order for a completely new object of work on the subject of your choice or you may write it yourself and then order a re-write or proofreading services. Now you understand that an honest and qualitative on-line essay writing service can offer great assistance for your learning, it's time to set your order. Whether you don't have sufficient free time to finish all your tasks or wish to concentrate on other elements of your life, our cheap essay writing service is the best choice. There are quite a few other explanations for why students ask us for assistance. Let our team know the sort of paper you require, the range of pages required, and when you require it by. Behind one part of paper there's a huge home work that you can also called as brainstorming and for brainstorming you ought to know what are the requirements of it. All you need to do is tell us write my dissertation or write my term paper and we are going to be there to aid you. To begin with, it depends upon how you use the completed paper. Just describe what you need and want your paper appears like and we'll fulfill your requirements without difficulty. Following your paper was finished, you'll also be requested to rate the author. It will be written in a clear and sophisticated language, with all the sources cited properly. The Argument About Free Samples of Essay Writing As, PhD admission essay are written to demonstrate how much you're worthy of the admission, so make sure the ideas you're noting is related to your experience and life. Academic writing can be a difficult and exhausting job to finish, but if you know the best place to find expert aid, you won't struggle anymore. Students start to secure more assignments and not as much time to study and complete them. When a student arrives to us and asks write my essay, for us, it is an enormous honor to help you in your academic matters and we'll always do our very best to implement your purchas e excellently! Free Samples of Essay Writing - What Is It? Though the conclusion paragraph comes at the conclusion of your essay it shouldn't be regarded as an afterthought. However you attempt to lower the amount writing you must do to help your essay, you'll need to master the method for your assignment. Once you get your outline, you may keep on track and compose a well-organized essay. You need to remember the suitable structure of a typical essay. Superior solution is to cover essay. Our 1-hour essay writing service may be an ideal solution for you. The thesis will often be utilized in your introductory paragraph. Your thesis is the principal point of your essay. The Fight Against Free Samples of Essay Writing As the last paragraph is represents your final opportunity to turn your case and, being such, should adhere to an extremely rigid format. At first, it may seem that writing essays is a simple procedure that certainly does not take away a relatively large amount of time. Each time you go to our website and ask us to compose my essays, we are more than content to aid you with that and assist during the entire approach. Once you've got an outline, its time to begin writing. Free Samples of Essay Writing Ideas There are several ways to compose an essay. There are several different explanations for why you might struggle with an essay. If you want more reasons why you ought to purchase an essay from us, simply order it here and you're going to observe it is well well worth it. When you purchase an essay here, we live as much as all of your expectations. Subsequently, essay was defined in various ways. Essays are typical in elementary, middle, higher school and college, and you might even have to compose essays in the industry world (although they're usually called reports'' at that point). Simply put, an essay cannot be boring and dry. If you're assigned to compose a descriptive essay.
Posted by Unknown at 10:46 PM
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Jazz Concert Review [pic] The first formal small jazz concert was held at the Maum CafÃ © on Sep. 25th, 2008. There were many music performances have held at the Maum CafÃ © but Zino Park, leader of the band, and manager of Maum CafÃ © agreed to arrange a formal jazz concert for the first time. The main theme of this concert was Ã¢â¬Å"Smooth Jazz with Zino Park at MaumÃ¢â¬ . Before the concert began, the band members introduced themselves to the audience. The names of players were: Acoustic guitar by Jerry, vocal piano by Zino Park, bass guitar by Clay Luna, vocal guitar by Zen, guitar saxophone by Dan Stark, drum by Skip Mccain, and harp by Monica. Name of the first song was Ã¢â¬Å"Be my loveÃ¢â¬ . They started a song with very brightÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Zino Park used keyboard instead of piano because keyboard could play with many different sound effects. The title of the fourth song was called, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get away from it allÃ¢â¬ . In their fourth song again, saxophone was played a huge role. From the beginning of the song piano kept playing same melody line repeated and saxophone was moving wide range of notes and pitch. The rhythm and the tempo of drum changed as saxophone changed rhythm and the tempo. The bass guitar helped drum to follow saxophoneÃ¢â¬â¢s rhythm and tempo. The saxophone style was kind of similar with the how Louis Armstrong was playing a solo. There were two guitars, but saxophone dominated other instruments and it was difficult to hear other instruments. The fifth song was hand drummer used sand rattler instead of hand drum. The drum solo in this song was very powerfu l and brought the exhilaration of this concert to the climax. The change of unpredictable rhythm and tempo made audience excited. Many audiences were clapping with rhythm. The sixth song was in blues style. The Name of the Song was, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see you in my dreamsÃ¢â¬ . Just bass guitar, saxophone, drum, and keyboard were playing. It was short piece song but just enough time to feel blues. This piece was one of few slow tempo songs in this concert. The mix of bass guitar, saxophone, drum, and keyboard articulatedShow MoreRelated jazz concert review Essay560 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The first question I asked myself at the beginning of the quarter was how much do I actually know about jazz? I have always characterized jazz music as a rhythmic and instrumental form of music. My impression on the basis of the jazz has always been portrayed with the African-American race. I think this was build up from the rhythm Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ blues era and meaning according to the dic tionary (Ã¢â¬Å"style of music that was invented by African American musicians in the early part of the twentieth century andRead MoreDevelopmental Aspects of Play1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesindividual music appreciation and the connection to the global village. Course Objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ To explore and reconsider ideas about cultural contact in the process of musical change Ã¢â¬ ¢ To understand music terminology Ã¢â¬ ¢ To understand, review and write reports on live performances using terminology demonstrating knowledge of musical elements within rhythm, pitch, and structure Ã¢â¬ ¢ To understand and further identify the social, economic, historical, philosophical and psychological elementsRead MoreThe Music Of Duke Ellington898 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI attended the Jazz Ensembles Concert, The Music of Duke Ellington, on Wednesday, September 30, 2015 at the Griffin Concert Hall, University Center for the Arts. I was not really sure what to expect since I had never experienced Jazz in a concert hall setting, however, I believe I am still able to make an informed and unbiased review. Not only was this my first Jazz concert, but it was also my first time visiting the University Center for the Arts. I was greeted immediately and with a very welcomingRead MoreThe Music Of The Jazz Music892 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyour life? This is something funny for me because I love the Jazz music and when I have the opportunity to make my concert review, I thought that the best opinion that I can give you is about the jazz music. I was checking around because I did not have the opportunity to see an event of jazz music here in Reno so I checked in YouTube and I choose one of the most incredible concerts that I have never seen in my life. The international Jazz Day. One of the most important days that many people are joiningRead MoreBumper Jacksons Concert Review On Mondavi Center1327 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJacksons Concert Review Walking towards Mondavi center, I was amazed by how shiny and resplendent she was at night. Having got my free ticket from the ticket office, I was led by well-dressed and kind staff to the Vanderhoef Studio where the concert will start soon. Upon entering the studio, I noticed that rather than rows of seats, there were round tables, on which little candles were dimming. Purple and blue lights were shed from the ceiling. I thought this set created a vibe that was so Jazz. SuddenlyRead MoreMusic Review : The Music1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMusic Review #2 Last Monday, October 17th, I had the privilege of seeing the performances of the University Repertoire Ensembles. They were live at the School of MusicÃ¢â¬â¢s Malcolm Bird Recital Hall, and each ensemble played several jazz melodies that were very engaging and entertaining. The University Repertoire Ensembles included the Contemporary Ensemble (CE), the Hard Bop Ensemble (HBE), and the Brazilian Ensemble (BE). The CE performed the songs, Ã¢â¬Å"Have You Heard,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sail Away,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Got A MatchRead MoreMotown Records Influence On Society Essay1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhen he was drafted to serve in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. When Gordy s service in the army ended in 1953, he returned to Detroit and used the money he had saved to pay for a record store called the Ã¢â¬ËThree-D Record MartÃ¢â¬â¢. His love or jazz influenced the records he tried to sell more than his customers requests and his business soon failed.Gordy worked for an assembly line at the Ford Motor Company. He did not find the work interesting, and as he worked he wrote songs in his head,Read MoreTaking a Look at Blood, Sweat and Tears1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgrotesque career moves. It could almost sound funny, talking about a group that sold close to six million records in three years and then squandered all of that momentum. They fused a rock roll rhythm section to a horn section, held out the promise of a jazz-rock fusion that could storm the pop charts. The band was organized in New York in 1967. Al Kooper (born February 5, 1944, NY). He was an ex member of the Blues Project, in need of money and a fresh start in music. Jim Fielder (born October 4, 1947Read MoreAlvin Ailey s Influence On The Landscape Of Modern Dance1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlvin Ailey spent his formative years going to Sunday School and participating in The Baptist Young People s Union. At age twelve, he moved to Los Angeles and, on a junior high school class trip to the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, fell in love with concert dance. Ailey began his formal dance training inspired by the performances of the Katherine Dunham Dance Company and the classes with Lester Horton that his friend, Carmen de Lavallade, urged him to take. Horton, the founder of the first racially integratedRead MoreAlvin Ailey: Cry Essay1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pa gesAlvin Ailey: Cry When Alvin AileyÃ¢â¬â¢s Cry premiered in 1971, Judith Jamison was praised for her tour-de- force 16-minute solo. An original New York Times review expressed that Ã¢â¬Å"She looks like an African goddessÃ¢â¬ . Cry - originally a gift for AileyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother - was dedicated to Ã¢â¬Å"all black women everywhere, especially our mothersÃ¢â¬ . This work, one of AileyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest successes, evokes an emotional journey, as the performance depicts the struggles of African American women suffering the extraordinary hardships
Posted by Unknown at 7:11 PM