Saturday, March 21, 2020

Essay Sample on Forensic Science The Search for Justice

Essay Sample on Forensic Science The Search for Justice A Chicago native, Kathleen J. Reichs is an award winning international bestseller, winner of the 1997 Ellis award for best first novel. Her novel Deja Dead was only the first in a series of books. She went on to write four more novels: Death du Jour, Deadly Decisions , Fatal voyage and Grave Secrets. Kathy Reichs is a internationally recognized forensic anthropologist working on cases around the world, from examining the tomb of the unknown soldier, and working at ground zero, New York, to being an expert witness between Charlotte and Montreal were she currently divides her time. These experiences are what gave birth to her novels, each of her stories is based on her own personal experiences. Evil exists in every human being, the closest most get to this evil is by criminal activities. But, most people also have a natural need for justice when this evil called crime is committed. Justice is often acquired through the means of forensic science, or simply forensics, the application of science to law. Scientific procedures, methods, and technologies are used in investigating these crimes and proving the guilt of an accused suspect in a court of law. After the evidence is gathered from a crime scene, and photographs have been taken. A crime involving a body normally begins with the Medical Examiner ( also referred to as the ME) conducts an autopsy, the examination of the body after death. The ME studies the deceased to determine his or her identity, as well as the cause, method, mode and time of death. The ME determines the time of death by pathology. When a human dies he or she shuts down in stages, the bodies live temperature of 98,6 degrees, is maintained for one to two hours after death, then begins to cool, till it finally drops to it‘s surroundings temperature. But, this method is only used if the body has been discovered within 48 hours. For those cadavers found weeks after death a forensic entomologist enters the scene and uses his or her knowledge of insect life to determine the time and date of death. Insects are attracted to a decaying corpses odour. This may smell bad to humans, but for an insect it’s chow time, and a perfect place for laying eggs. Since insects go through different stages of life at different times, a forensic entomologist (FE) will take samples of the insects surrounding the body, and identify what species they are. Then the FE will cultivate the larvae to discover the time each stage takes. Once the species and stages of their life has been established, the entomologist can determine how many hours and days the body has gone unfound. Insects can also tell if the body has been moved after death by comparing the local insects found around the body and the insects inside the body. Identifying a corpse is sometimes very simple, people usually carry with them a wallet or some kind of identification, it’s a simple task to simply examen the contents of a wallet. But, in some infrequent circumstances a body is not carrying any identification and no one is able to identify him or her. Under these circumstances, the ME, and other forensic specialists are brought in to work with the evidence and make an identification. The easiest things to do are to describe the victims appearance and search the missing persons reports. The next step would be to take the body’s fingerprints and compare it with the federal fingerprint files. Since no two people have the exact same fingerprints and the pattern is unchanged through life if a match is found the deceased has an identity. Fingerprints can also link a suspect to his crime, fingerprints found at the scene of the crime are compared to a suspect’s fingerprints establishing absolute proof the suspected was there. If a body part or a bodies skeleton his found, enter the forensic anthropologists to identify the victim’s remains. A forensic anthropologist must suggest the age, sex, stature, ethnic group, and other unique characteristics of a descendent with anthropology, the study of human beings. In the novel Fatal Voyage, author Kathy Reichs has her heroine, forensic anthropologist Dr. Temperance Brennan, investigating plane crash victims. Body parts have been scattered and Dr. Brennan must determine which body parts go together to identify the body by comparing her description to the description of the passengers on the plane. In other cases without a passenger list investigators can take the description made by the forensic anthropologist and compare it to missing persons files. Forensic science depends on evidence to help solve a crime, and bring criminals to justice. Evidence is a reliable witness, it can be anything and everything in the physical universe that helps establish the facts. From a single hair, to a trail of blood, we humans are made of a cocktail of biological materials that can be left behind at the crime scene, which all can be used to identify the criminal with DNA analysis. Other evidence can suggest contact between the victim and the suspect. Like Sherlock Holmes depended on his trusty magnifying glass, the forensic scientists of today depend on their tools of the trade to uncover evidence. Without these technologies some evidence needed to solve the crime would be obsolete and others not even uncovered. An example would be the chemical luminol, used to highlight blood that has been washed away from the crime scene. . Many books, television programs and movies have based themselves on the idea of forensic science and detective work, from Sherlock Holmes to the popular television show CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. These stories show a glimpse of the work involved in forensics, but only a glimpse. On the television and in movies the hero or heroine often reveals the identity of the criminal with one piece of evidence, one clue, that solves the hole case. The real investigators are much harder working and cannot reveal the criminal that instantly. Very often the cases cannot be solved due to an insufficiency of evidence. The search for justice is a hard and long process, which involves many scientific methods procedures, and technologies. For some the search of justice is to strenuous, but for others who remind themselves that justice is needed in a society of laws, it’s a living. Kathy Reichs describes the reasons for doing what she does in her book Fatal Voyage when her heroine Dr. Brennan says, †I want to serve both the living and the dead. The dead have a right to be identified .To have their stories drawn to a close and to take their places in our memories. If they died at the hands of another, they also have a right to have those hands brought to account.† Forensic scientists require extensive knowledge, training, and skill. They also require a healthy appetite of curiosity, a quean eye of observation, the emotional stamina to work with human tragedies, and to be able to view the evil of man.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Free Money for Collegeâ€Paying for School With Grants

Free Money for College- Paying for School With Grants A grant is a sum of money that is gifted to someone for a specific purpose. For example, a grant might be awarded to a student so that the student can pay for tuition, books and other education-related costs. Grants are also known as awards or gift aid. Why You Need Grants Grants the best way to pay for college or business school. Unlike students loans, which can create a significant financial burden during and after school, grants do not need to be paid back. Getting Grants for School Students can receive grants from a variety of sources, including private organizations, educational institutions, professional associations, and federal and state governments.  Grants may be awarded based on a student’s financial need, ethnicity, religious affiliation, record of achievement, association or special interests. Education Grants From the Federal Government There are many different types of grants awarded by the federal government. Lets explore a few of the best grants for school. Federal Pell Grant- Federal Pell Grants are the most common grants awarded by the federal government. These grants are primarily designed for students who have not yet earned a bachelors degree. In other words, they are for undergraduate students. However, these grants might also be available to students in a  postbaccalaureate teacher certification program.  Federal Pell Grants are need-based; they are meant to help low-income students pay for school. Grant amounts vary by individual and are dependent on the cost of education and the students expected family contribution (EFC).Federal Supplemental Education Opportunity Grant- The federal government gives schools money through the FSEOG Program each year. These funds are then distributed by the school to financially-needy students. That means that FSEOG grants are campus-based aid. Not every school participates in this federal program, and the funds are usually available on a first-come, first-served based. Students who get FSEOG grants typically have a very low EFC and are usually Federal Pell Grant recipients. The amount of the award varies but usually falls somewhere between $100 and $4,000. Education Grants From the State Government Grants for school are also awarded at the state level. Each state has a different way of acquiring and distributing financial aid. Many states fund their programs with taxes and lottery earnings. State-based grants are usually designed to be spent at in-state schools, but again, rules vary by state. Some examples of state grant programs include the Pennsylvania State Grant Program, which is a need-based program that awards aid on a sliding scale based on annual income, and Cal Grants, a California-based program that awards aid to students who attend school at least half-time and falls under  income and asset ceilings. Education Grants From Other Sources Federal and state governments arent the only groups who award grants for school. Nearly all colleges and universities have some type of grant program for students who can demonstrate financial need. You should speak with your schools financial aid office to learn more about grant availability and application procedures.  You may also be able to receive merit-based grants from professional associations, corporations, and other groups who have formal and informal programs for students seeking education funds.   How to Apply for Grants The application procedure for grants varies depending on the organization. To apply for federal grants, you need to fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) each year you plan to attend school. Some states also award grants based on information supplied in the FAFSA form. However, application rules for each state vary. Contact your states Department of Education to learn more about application procedures.