Saturday, August 31, 2019


I am thirty four years of age. I'm originally from Trinidad and Tobago W. L. Came to America twenty years ago, lived in Brooklyn New York, and attended south shore high school and graduated. I'm a very proud and active mother of five children four boys and one girl. I am truly blessed to have my kids In my life. My children play a very big part in my life they are my world. My two boys play basketball, and the other two plays football, my daughter Is a cheerleader, they also o swimming.We do a lot of traveling In the summer time; explore deferent ways of life and what life has to offer, until we ended up In the state of Pennsylvania. I have been In the medical field for over fifteen years, as a companion In homes also In hospitals now am a nurses aid, I love taking care of the elderly and the mentally challenged patients. Taking care of people I enjoy and love doing, I assist my patients with activities and dally living Including bathing, dressing, eating etc.My Job requires hours of walking, standing and heavy Lifting of patients. When I'm not working I'm cooking cleaning and spending time with my kids doing adventures things, I make sure and put that time in with my children. I am a single mother doing it on my own: I think I have the motherly part under control so far. Now I'm back in school pursing my dreams of graduating from college and getting a better paying job with my degree. My kids support my every step, and I am so excited to be back in school.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Always Running Chapter Essay

Summary: Luis describes his life as part of the gang, saying that he and his friends are in a vacant lot they had claimed as their own, furnished with old sofas and covered by plastic to keep off at least some of the rain when an old car comes by. Two of the group go to the street to get a better look and one, Clavo, is shot in the face. Clavo loses an eye in the shooting. Luis and Rano do many jobs, ranging from cleaning houses, lawns, pools and garages to paper routes. They give all the money to their mother and Luis notes that there is always a need to for more. As a teenager and after Clavo leaves the neighborhood, Luis becomes friends with a young man named Claudio Ponce, known as Yuk Yuk because of his distinctive laugh. It’s Yuk Yuk who introduces Luis to stealing. With Yuk Yuk leading, meet a man named Jandro Mares, who has the teens steal specific cars on order, drive them back to Jandro’s garage and strip them down. They also steal bikes, jewelry, electronics and other items for a man named Shed Cowager who pays cash for almost anything they can steal. They soon graduate to residential burglary and robbing convenience stores. There is race trouble at the beginning of every school year. During one incident, the police arrive to break up a fight, the whites leave without a problem and the Mexicans arrested or expelled. Luis’s mother is finally fed up with pulling him out of jail and watching him in trouble, and kicks him out of the house. Luis suffers a hernia and has to have surgery. Luis describes, in great detail, the effects of a high from â€Å"sniffing† intoxicants including various sprays and gas. Luis begins dating Wilo’s younger sister, Payasa. Soon after he breaks up with her, she is admitted to a rehabilitation center for additions. Later, Wilo and Payasa leave the Barrior for what they hope is a better life.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Nursing Field Argument

14 September 2012 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to inform those who may be unaware of the problem of low nurse to patient ratios and how to correct it. Many patients suffer due to understaffed nurses. Not only does the patient suffer, the nurse does as well. A patient faces a higher chance of having pneumonia and it being unnoticed and untreated, due to the fact that a nurse has so many patients to care for all at once. Quite a few nurses become burnt out due to working an abundant amount of hours at a time, even become dissatisfied with working as a nurse. You can read also Coronary Artery Disease Nursing Care PlanIn order to prevent low patient to nurse ratios there should be maximum of four patients to one nurse. The issue of low nurse to patient ratios needs to be corrected in order to prevent chaos in the nursing field. Low Nurse to Patient Ratios Correction A recent issue in the nursing field has become extremely prevalent in the past decade. Low nurse to patient ratios have been linked to putting patients in danger. Not only do the low ratios affect the patient, they have added stress up on the nurse as well. An abundant amount of Nurses become burnt out.Working long hours filled with hard labor have caused nurses to become fatigue and overworked. Nurses no longer want to work in the nursing field any more due to circumstances. This issue needs to be corrected in order to prevent putting patients and nurses as well in danger. Low nurse to patient ratios can be corrected by having a maximum of 4 patients at once. This number of pa tients is ethical and is not costly. When a nurse has a large amount of patients things that can be easily noticed go unnoticed. If there is a low nurse to patient ratio, a nurse may very well overlook little signs that can lead to a diagnosis.Due to low nurse to patient ratios a patient faces a higher chance of obtaining pneumonia. Once the patient has pneumonia in many cases it goes undetected. As a result of the viral infection not being detected is goes untreated. An increase in nurse patient ratio shows a 9. 5 percent decrease in the odds of a patient getting pneumonia (Stanton). If a nurse had more time with a single patient the viral infection could be easily recognized and treated. A patient dying under the care of a nurse is a very big issue. As an effect of low staffed urses an abundant amount of patients face a seven percent increase in the probability of dying within 30 days of admission to a hospital (â€Å"Hospital Nurse †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). They also are up against a sev en percent chance of a nurse failing to rescue (â€Å"Hospital Nurse†¦ †). Not only does the low nurse to patient ratios affect the patient but the nurse as well. A nurse’s day is full of tedious tasks. A nurse works extremely hard during the time they are on the floor working. After working extremely hard for a 12 hour shift with multiple patients a person is over worked.As a result of doing this day after day, a person becomes burnt out. Forty-three percent of nurses had high burnout scores (Schwenk). Other than a nurse becoming burnt out, a nurse may also become dissatisfied with the nursing field. A nurse is typically passing out medications and providing direct care a patient, but in most cases ends up going outside of the responsibilities described in their job description. A nurse ends up performing duties of those that are to be done by a certified nursing assistant or licensed practical nurse due to the fact that there is a high amount of patients all at once.Since the nurse is doing many other jobs they ultimately feel as though they no longer want to work as a nurse. With each additional patient, a nurse faces a 15 percent increase in the chances of becoming dissatisfied as working as a nurse. Forty-three percent of nurses had low job-satisfaction scores (Schwenk). To prevent nurses from becoming dissatisfied with this field, there needs to be a law mandating that a nurse is to only have 4 patients to care for. In each and every facility where a nurse is employed, the mandatory nurse to patient ratio should be four patients to one nurse.This ratio is reasonably cost efficient. According to research done by Thomas Schwenk, if the amount of patients were to be increased, from four patients to one nurse, to any number up to eight patients would result in five deaths per one thousand patients. The ratio of four patients to one nurse is an ethical ratio. Once a minimum of four patients to one nurse is mandated in all states of America, patients will no longer have to worry about receiving adequate health care. Nurses will no longer become dissatisfied as working as a nurse.When the number of patients a nurse has is lowered, a nurse will only complete what it is that a nurse is required to do, instead of performing the duties of a nursing assistant. A nurse will not be burnt out after a shift, due to the fact that they will only be responsible for giving care to four patients. Works Cited Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski J, Silber JH. â€Å"Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout, and Job Dissatisfaction. † JAMA, 30 October 2002. Web. 1 September 2012. Stanton M. A. , Mark. †Hospital Nurse Staffing and Quality of Care. † Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.Web. 1 September 2012. Schwenk MD, Thomas. â€Å"Low Nurse Staffing Ratios, Patient Safety, and Nurse Burnout. † Journal Watch Specialties, 8 November 2002. Web. 7 September 2012. Annotated Bibliogra phy Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski J, Silber JH. â€Å"Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout, and Job Dissatisfaction. † JAMA, 30 October 2002. Web. 1 September 2012. The article basically discusses low patient to nurse ratios. This problem has become extremely prevalent in the past decade. It goes into detail on how it affects the nurse and patient as well.Research done by the authors of this article show that each additional patient a nurse has brings on a 23 percent increase in the odds of a burn out and 15 percent increase in job dissatisfaction. In many cases the nurse becomes burnt out, due to all of the work and time put in. As an effect of low staffed nurses an abundant amount of patients face a seven percent increase in the probability of dying within 30 days of admission to a hospital. They also are up against a seven percent chance of a nurse failing to rescue. Stanton M. A. , Mark. †Hospital Nurse Staffing and Quality of Car e. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Web. 1 September 2012. This article written by Mark Stanton goes into fixing the low patient to nurse ratios and as well some of the effects. The article goes over nurses becoming burnt out and dissatisfied with working as a nurse. Studies done by the AHRQ brings the effect of low staffed nurses and the higher chances of patients getting pneumonia. An increase in RN patient ratio shows a 9. 5 percent decrease in getting pneumonia. If a nurse had more time with a single patient it could be easily recognized and treated. Welton PhD RN, John. Mandatory Hospital Nurse to Patient Staffing Ratios: Time to Take a Different Approach. † The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 30 September 2007. Web. 1 September 2012. This article discusses an alternative way to help with low nurse to patient ratios. Instead of having a mandatory nurse to patient staffing ratio, simply charge patients based on the care they were given. It goes into arguing the alternative solution. The option is cost efficient. This option decreases the chances of a nurse becoming burnt out because a nurse does not work as many hours. It also rules out the chances of job dissatisfaction.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Project Three - Information Security White Paper Research

Project Three - Information Security White - Research Paper Example It is essential to define a solid network defense for handling cyber-attacks. We have divided security into two aspects i.e. technical and formal security. Technical System Security After identifying the purpose, there is a requirement of identify weaknesses or vulnerabilities along with impact and types. Organizations have to consider the backdoors and the week points that may allow or trigger any threats to disrupt business operations by compromising an asset or information system. Moreover, a holistic approach is required to address all risks and vulnerabilities, as every minor vulnerability can expand by cascading other risks in the system. At a technical standpoint, what needs to be protected hardware, applications or data? That is a question that must be addressed by organization itself (Royal Canadian, 1992). The summary of this question can only be encountered by identifying and categorizing threats. As per (Dhillon, 2007) threats are categorized as Modification, Destruction, Disclosure, Interception, Interruption and fabrication and implies on hardware security, data security and software security. Effective change management and configuration management procedures along with documentation are the most effective controls for minimize security vulnerabilities that may arise from incompatible modules or hardware modification from the system (Prin of computer security 2E2010). Destruction is associated with physical damage to a hardware device, network device or software. Whereas, software destruction can be from a malicious code, Trojan or unintentional deletion of a kernel of any application etc. Similarly, data can also be deleted intentionally or unintentionally and can also be cause by malfunctioning device. Disclosure of data is proportional to confidentiality i.e. need to know basis. Data is easy to be stolen because the original copy still seems intact, in spite of the data theft. Data types can be classified in to many types, again depending on o rganizational requirements. For instance, trade secrets, upcoming financial results or long term strategic plans of the organization can be classified as top secret, whereas, customer information can be classified as confidential. Organizations conducting business online collect customer information via websites. Data can also be intercepted by unauthorized access to computing and electronic resources. Moreover, unauthorized remote can also result in accessing information from a remote location. Interruption can also cause system availability that may result from malfunctioned hardware or power outage. Moreover, interruption of services can also be caused from broadcast storm or network congestion that may cause denial of service. Lastly, fabrication refers to a penetration of transactions to a database. Fabrication is often conducted by unauthorized parties in a way that is difficult to identify the authentic and forged transaction. One of the examples of fabrication is called as à ¢â‚¬ËœPhishing’. Moreover, asymmetric and symmetric encryption techniques are considered as per requirements. Moreover, non-repudiation can be prevented by third party certificate authorities. Formal System Security Management of information system security requires a development of organizational structure and processes for ensuring adequate protection and integrity. Likewise, for maintaining adequate security, an appropriate relationship organization is required for maintaining integrity of

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6

Marketing - Essay Example This paper will look at the Federal Reserve Bank’s organizational structure and its roles in governing monetary policy. The structure of the Federal Reserve Bank consists of Member banks, Reserve Banks, the Federal Open Market Committee, Board of Governors, and the congress and the President. Member Banks Member Banks refer to private banks, for example, Bank of America, which has the stock in any of the twelve local Reserve Banks. Every countrywide chattered bank must own stock in the Federal Reserve. In addition, state chartered banks or financial institutions may decide to own stock or not if they satisfy a number of conditions. The stock held by these banks cannot be traded or sold like ordinary stock and constituent banks get fixed amount of dividend every year on this stock (Arthur 417). Moreover, constituent banks have the dispensation of selecting a number of the officials in the board of their regional Reserve Banks. Reserve Banks   The operating arm of the Federal Reserve Bank is made up of twelve regional Reserve Banks. These regional Reserve Banks have the responsibility of regulating and supervising constituent banks. In addition, the regional Reserve Banks are charged with the responsibility of handing out coins and currency to affiliate banks (Arthur 418). Every Reserve Bank is made up of nine board of directors. ... The five individuals are New York’s Reserve Bank chairman and heads of any four Reserve Banks (Arthur 418). Officials from Reserve Banks operate on a rotary process, and only the official from the Reserve Bank of New York serves on a permanent basis. Board of Governors   The Board of Governors constitutes seven officials who are picked by the American President and approved by the American Senate. The Board of Governors also comprises a chairperson and a vice chairperson. Every official in the Board of Governors holds his position for up to fourteen years. Also, these officials cannot be reappointed after the expiry of their terms. The fourteen year term serves as a precaution for the Federal Reserve Bank to conduct its functions without any political interference (Arthur 419). The president picks two officials from the board, one of the officials become the Chairperson and the other becomes the vice chairperson. The two ranks last for four year duration. US Congress and the President   The president makes appointments and the Senate approve the Board of Governors members. Nevertheless, the Federal Reserve Bank functions on its finances. This safeguards it from the influence of the administration during the making of the budget every year. Congress can hold the Federal Reserve Bank accountable for its activities. In addition, Congress can control both the Federal Reserve Bank’s responsibilities and activities by law (Arthur 420). This means Congress can change the activities of the Federal Reserve Banks by enforcing new laws. The Federal Reserve Bank also has roles associated with governing monetary policy. The Board of Governors has the responsibility of establishing

Monday, August 26, 2019

Is oral sucrose an effective method of pain relief for pre-term Literature review

Is oral sucrose an effective method of pain relief for pre-term neonates - Literature review Example Preterm neonates undergo several diagnostic procedures in the clinics and hospital, from vitamin K injection during the first hours after being delivered up to heel pricks for blood sampling to detect metabolic aberrations few days after being discharged. Some preterm neonates also undergo necessary resuscitation and ventilation to sustain and support life of premature vital organs. These situations warrant the administration of drugs and behavioral interventions like opioid analgesics, local and general anesthetics, sedative/ hypnotics, NSAIDS, and sucrose (Anand et al 2006, p. 11). While there are several researches performed to validate the efficiency of these agents in neonates, the issue on safety on the preterm neonates remains an active area of debate. In this review, research articles from journals in scholarly databases such as Cochrane databases and PubMed were evaluated and compared based on their relevant evidence on the practice of using oral sucrose in preterm neonates. Only the studies that utilized a randomized controlled trial designs were selected. The design and number of participants utilized in the studies will be considered and discussed in this paper. Moreover, the research articles are classified and covered under specific procedure often undergone by neonates. The Challenge of Pain Assessment New developments in the neurobiological, embryological, and developmental studies established that even the primitive forms of human life respond to noxious stimuli through a combination of distinct behaviors and physiological activity (Anand et al 2006, p. 9). Like adults, unnecessary pain and suffering of the fetus and the neonate need to be prevented to avoid short- term and long- term consequences (Haidon and Cunliffe 2010, p. 123). As with every situation, assessments always precede interventions even in the management of pain. In the actual clinic setting, the pain felt by the neonates are often overlooked as a normal pattern of their behavio r. For instance, neonates undergoing procedures in the clinics and hospitals like bladder catheterization, needle sticks, surgery, mechanical ventilation, and even the administration of intravenous antibiotics are expected to cry due to discomfort and pain. Because of the ubiquitous nature of pain in preterm neonates, clinicians may fail to address the suffering in minor procedures and fail to perform necessary actions (Porter, Wolf, and Miller 1999, p. 1). Failure to acknowledge the importance of alleviating pain in the preterm and term neonates can result to serious consequences in their neurologic maturation. Therefore, more sensitive assessment tools are needed to detect the level of pain in the neonates and to validate the intervention researches in pain relief. Currently, specific tools consider multidimensional features associated with pain like cry behavior, grimace, quality of sucking, and physiological outcomes (Vani, Nimbalkar, and Thakre 2009, p. 200). Neonates may show different spectra of crying depending on each situation (Belliene et al. 2004, p. 142). Unlike adults, pain assessment of preterm neonates rely on these signs rather that an actual description and quality of pain (Lawrence et al. 1993). Although several researches were conducted to minimize the unnecessary pain, the assessment of pain in preterm

Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies Essay - 11

Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies - Essay Example Additionally, the merger and acquisition strategies that the company has adopted has made it to effectively meet the needs of its customers as well diversify its operations. Some of the notable companies that AT&T has acquired include America Movil and Direct TV among others. The company competitors are T-Mobile, Verizon, and Sprint. This paper seeks to discuss various levels and types of strategies adopted by AT&T as well as the comparison of its strategies with those of Verizon its main rival. For any company to succeed in a short-term and in the long-term, it must come up with unique business-level strategies. As a leader in the telecommunication sector, AT&T success has been achieved as the result of effective business level strategies. One of the notable strategies that the company has adopted is the master strategy. This implies that the company intends to be the only telecom provider that connects its small and large customers anywhere. Recently, the company management stated that AT&T plans to focus exhaustively on large customers. This will account for 75% of the company revenue an aspect that will save the $1 billion annually (Ausik, 2012). Another key strategy that AT&T embarks on is product differentiation. One of the major aspects that differentiate the company from its competitors is the exclusive agreement with Apple Corporation to sell iPhone. As a result, the company has benefited from strong customer loyalty based on the valuable products provided by Apple . The marketing strategies that AT&T adopts have a great impact on the profitability of the company. Geographically, the company is positioning itself as the leader in wireless coverage. Additionally, the company as noted earlier has embarked on diversification of its product line. Some of the wireless products that AT&T provides include PTT, video share, and voice-IP among others.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Musical Autobiography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Musical Autobiography - Essay Example It was one of the most famous songs at that time, which became the first international â€Å"local song†, familiar to all world cultures (The Center for American Music). â€Å"Old Folks at Home† is a song about the need for one’s family home, childhood memories, and the security of a family. No matter how far we go, we always miss â€Å"de old plantation and for de old folks at home† (Foster). This song has been performed by many singers, but I like best Paul Robeson’s interpretation from 1926. I first listened to it as an 8-year-old girl with my father, who is a big fan of Paul Robeson. This song used to accompany our family dinners, long car trips and outings. Today, when I feel sad and lonely, I play â€Å"Old Folks at Home† and I think about my family in Korea. This songs allows me to realize that even though I am so far away from my family, we are still close at heart. I know that I have a family that cares for me and a home where I will always be welcomed. Another song that reminds me of my childhood in Korea is â€Å"Candy†, performed by H.O.T, which was my favorite band when I was in primary school. H.O.T was the most popular boy band in Korea at that time and all my friends were their big fans. We all collected pictures and posters of H.O.T and we were spending a lot of time practicing the choreography of â€Å"Candy†. Although my musical tastes have changed with time, sometimes I like listening to â€Å"Candy† and thinking with nostalgia of the days when my biggest worry was lack of some poster of H.O.T. that my best friend had already had on the wall. This song reminds me of my pre-teen days, my first crash on Kang Ta – one of the members of the band, and the great moments I spent singing and dancing with my friends. I think that preadolescence is a very important stage in our lives, when we start to develop meaningful friendships, we have increased feelings of independence, and we

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Valuation of Coporations from Private Equity and Governance Research Paper

Valuation of Coporations from Private Equity and Governance - Research Paper Example It also throws light on the influence of corporate governance that such a system brings along with it into an industry. Private equity is the process of raising equity capital by gathering investments from individuals and institution that are known to have high net worth and have supreme financial strength. The investing firms are called the Private equity firms. Most of the top companies follow the private equity concept. On the other hand it is seen that good corporate governance raises the overall value of the firm. The general assumption to this concept is that, firms with good internal practice will be able to meet their goals and objectives effectively, thereby raising a company’s value. The research aims to analyze the operating performance of acquired companies and the internal rate of returns that the funds generate through private equity. In addition a brief study about human factors impacting the value of the firm will also be covered (Acharya, et. al., 2013). The research work emphasizes on the in the in depth analysis of corporate valuation based on the criteria of private equity and corporate governance. The purpose here is to identify the importance of equity funding in the overall performance of a firm and the benefits of private equity funding in the long run. The work of Kaplan is mainly used for this literature review (Kaplan & Stromberg, 2008). According to his opinion it was observed that leveraged buyouts (LBO) in the UK were significantly high before the recession period that started since 2010. Buyouts are a way by which funds can be invested in a firm. Buyouts are a type of private equity investment. It has been a matter of debate between many experts to decide whether it is buyouts that create greater value for the firm or is it equity investment in general. However research has shown that private equity only leads to short term gains where as buyouts have been seen to provide companies with

Friday, August 23, 2019

Analysis of Globalization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Analysis of Globalization - Essay Example   First of all it is necessary to mention that globalization has both positive and negative impacts on contemporary world, and exactly nowadays it is difficult to find a more fashionable and debatable topic than globalization. Different conferences and symposia, hundreds of modern books and thousands of articles are devoted to it. Scientists and politicians, businessmen and economists, religious leaders and artists argue about it. The subject of lively debate is literally everything - what the globalization is, when it started, how it fits with other processes in public and economic life, and what its immediate and long-term consequences are. However, the abundance of approaches, opinions and assessments do not guarantee the deep study of this fundamental issue. Globalization is considered to be a difficult question that is not difficult only for mass consciousness but for scientific analysis, too. Thus, it is waiting for a thorough study and we are going to begin its discussion fr om the perspective of economic inequality. Thinking about economic inequality through the prism of globalization it is necessary to mention that the main consequence of this is the global division of labor, migration across the planet's capital, human and industrial resources, the standardization of legislation, economic and technological processes, as well as the convergence of cultures in different countries. It is an objective process that is systemic in its nature and that covers all the aspects of society. Globalization is associated primarily with the internationalization of the entire public activity on the Earth (Gumery, 2006). This internationalization means that humanity is a single system of social, cultural, economic, political and other relations, interactions and relationships in the modern era. For example, including all the countries and nationalities, epochal events and changes that happened in the world at the end of the last century we recognize globalization†™s influence. Humanity now lives in the ‘world community’ where a single country or a group of countries cannot be fully fenced off from each other. Globalization deeply leaves roots in the history, and, however, it is considered to be the phenomenon of the 20th century. It is obvious that the processes of globalization of world economy observed in recent decades, have conflicting implications for the economic development of many countries. Currently two opposite points of view on globalization as a factor in the balanced development of the world economy co-exist. According to the first position, globalization is a ‘zero-sum game’: it gives a gain to relatively more developed countries, and it gives losses to less developed (developing) countries.  Ã‚  

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Human vs. Other Organisms Essay Example for Free

Human vs. Other Organisms Essay Horse3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Donkey3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Common zebra3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Pig, cow, sheep3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Dog3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Gray whale3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Rabbit3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Kangaroo3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Chicken, turkey3: Isoleucine, Valine, Glutamine Penguin4: Isoleucine, Valine, Glutamine, 0 Pekin duck2: Valine, Glutamine Snapping turtle3: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine Rattlesnake4: Serine, Glycine, Threonine Bullfrog4: Valine, Glutamine, Alanine, Cysteine Tuna4: Alanine, Valine, Glutamine, Asparagine Screwfly fly5: Valine, Glutamine, Arginine, Alanine Silkworm moth8: Asparagine, Alanine, Asparagine, Valine, Glutamine, Arginine, Alanine, Alanine Tomato horn worm9: Asparagine, Alanine, Aspartic acid, Asparagine, Valine, Glutamine, Arginine, Alanine, Alanine Wheat10: Asparagine, Proline, Aspartic acid, Alanine, Alanine, Lysine, Threonine, Alanine, Aspartic acid, Alanine Rice9: Asparagine, Proline, Lysine, Alanine, Glutamic acid, Lysine, Threonine, Alanine, Aspartic acid Baker’s Yeast11: Serine, Alanine, Lysine, Alanine, Threonine, Leucine, Lysine, Threonine, Arginine, Glutamic acid, Leucine Candida Yeast13: Serine, Alanine, Lysine, Alanine, Threonine, Leucine, Lysine, Threonine, Arginine, Alanine, Glutamic acid, Isoleucine, Alanine Neurospora14: Serine, Lysine, Alanine, Asparagine, Leucine, Lysine, Threonine, Arginine, Alanine, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glycine Reflection Questions: Summarize your amino acid comparison in paragraph form. To guide your summary, reflect on the following questions. 1.What does it mean when scientists say that living organisms share a universal genetic code? It means that all extinct organisms have all the same genetic code. 2.How does a universal genetic code relate to the hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth? The near-universal genetic code is that all extant things share some type of common ancestor. 3.How are self-replicating molecules, such as RNA molecules in the â€Å"RNA World† hypothesis, essential to the most popular hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth? They reproduce, and could have been formed through abiotic chemistry on the early Earth. 4.How might similarities and differences in genetic codes, or the proteins built as a result of these codes, be used to determine how closely related different species are? The more alike the letters are in a species, the more recent the ancestor was. If the ancestor was recent then the more alike the two different species will be. 5.Based on the amino acid sequence data for the Cytochome-C protein, chimpanzees and humans share an identical coding sequence. What other species identified on the chart has a coding sequence that is most closely related to the humans and chimpanzees and most distantly related? Explain your answer

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Business - Accounting Essay Example for Free

Business Accounting Essay In the file ACC 561 Week 3 Discussion Question 1 you will find right answers on the following task: Select a costing method: process, job, or activity based. Describe the nature of your chosen method. What types of organizations should choose that method? How is this method different from the costing methods you did not choose? Use your selected costing method to create a real-life business management scenario that includes realistic numbers. What management decisions may one make based on your scenario? Business Accounting Alternative Costing Methods The text presents job and processing costing systems as virtual â€Å"polar extremes,† there are many situations where it may be best for a company to use a hybrid system that combines attributes of both systems. Describe such a situation and discuss how the hybrid system may be better than either pure job or pure process systems. Think Twice Assume you own a business that makes two complementary products for which you allocated manufacturing overhead proportionally. A competitor is trying to undercut your price for one of the products. How might ABC costing help you better compete with this pending threat? Activity Base Costing- How do managers cost products or services using ABC systems? When should managers consider using an ABC costing system? How should they decide to adopt this method? Alternative Costing Methods I would like you all to select a costing method: process, job, or activity  based. Describe the nature of your chosen method. What types of organizations should choose that method? How is this method different from the costing methods you did not choose? I have implemented a job costing system in my company. If you were my corporate controller, how would you implement a job-costing system? Why is process costing a better costing method for cert Follow the link to get tutorial College is a great time for young people to find themselves and to really find out what they are made of. However, there is a lot to learn. Some students only really become comfortable at college when its about time to leave! Dont let that be you. Here are some great college tips. Business Accounting Alternative Costing Methods The text presents job and processing costing systems as virtual â€Å"polar extremes,† there are many situations where it may be best for a company to use a hybrid system that combines attributes of both systems. Describe such a situation and discuss how the hybrid system may be better than either pure job or pure process systems. Think Twice Assume you own a business that makes two complementary products for which you allocated manufacturing overhead proportionally. A competitor is trying to undercut your price for one of the products. How might ABC costing help you better compete with this pending threat? Activity Base Costing- How do managers cost products or services using ABC systems? When should managers consider using an ABC costing system? How should they decide to adopt this method? Alternative Costing Methods I would like you all to select a costing method: process, job, or activity based. Describe the nature of your chosen method. What types of organizations should choose that method? How is this method different from the costing methods you did not choose? I have implemented a job costing system in my company. If you were my corporate controller, how would you implement a job-costing system? Why is process costing a better costing method for certain industries? What would happen if they used a job costing system? Can we explain three major source documents and how they are used in job costing systems? Why are these source documents needed?

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Diabetic With Exertional Dyspnea and Anasarca: Case Study

Diabetic With Exertional Dyspnea and Anasarca: Case Study A fifty year old gentleman, a known diabetic and hypertensive presented with exertional dyspnea and fluid overload. He was detected to have renal failure and associated evidence of cardiac disease, cardiorenal syndrome Type 4. He improved with decongestive therapy and conservative management. In view of the presence of microvascular complications of diabetes, he was diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy stage 5 and initiated on maintenance haemodialysis. The approach to diabetics with renal involvement and the issues in their management is discussed. Case summary A fifty year old gentleman a known diabetic and hypertensive for eight years presented with exertional dyspnea of one month duration. Dyspnoea on exertion had been progressively worsening for one month with orthopnea for one day. He complained of cough accompanied with  ½ a cup per day of mucoid non foul smelling, non blood stained sputum for last one month. He complained of swelling feet with worsening of dyspnoea for last four days. No h/o chest pain, PND, syncope, wheeze or fever. He was a chronic smoker (25 pack yrs) and a reformed alcohol consumer 240 gms/day for 15yrs. What would be your analysis of symptoms? The exertional dyspnea is suggestive of cardiovascular system involvement. In a diabetic, hypertensive and chronic smoker, coronary artery disease or hypertensive heart disease would be common possibilities. Cough with wheeze in a smoker could be COPD in exacerbation with cor pulmonale accounting for the exertional dyspnea and swelling feet, however orthopnea, a sign of left sided cardiac involvement would be uncommon. Additionally, the duration of cough is too short to qualify for COPD. Infective causes of cough like tuberculosis need to be excluded although they cannot account for all symptoms. He also complained of decreased urine output and puffiness of face for last four days. There is no history of altered behaviour, haematuria, smoky urine, nocturia, dysuria, hesitancy or precipitancy. Two years ago patient during evaluation prior to surgery for prolapsed disc was found a creatinine of 1.5mg%. Does the differential diagnosis change in the light of the additional information? The complaints of oliguria and puffiness of face suggests renal failure with fluid overload state. It is common for Type 2 diabetics, especially with accompanying hypertension to present with early renal involvement. Therefore, although the duration of diabetes is only eight years, the cause of renal failure could still be diabetic nephropathy. The presence of renal involvement two years ago is a clue to the chronic nature of renal involvement. An acute on chronic renal failure due to respiratory tract infection could account for the sudden worsening over one month. On examination, pulse 84 / min, regular, BP 190/110 mm Hg, respiratory rate 28/min, thoraco abdominal , JVP 8 cm above sternal angle, Facial puffiness, pallor and pitting edema in upper and lower limbs noted. Trophic skin changes in lower limb were present. No asterixis, Icterus, clubbing, cyanosis or lymphadenopathy seen. Respiratory system examination revealed extensive wheeze and coarse crackles. The heart sounds were normal with no pericardial rub. Liver was enlarged, span 15cm,soft, nontender and ascites was not elicitable. Fundoscopy revealed early nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Rest of neurological examination was normal. What is your analysis with the given clinical findings? The patient has anasarca with pallor and hypertension. The presence of diabetic retinopathy also suggests microvascular complications have set in. Diabetic nephropathy with fluid overload state can explain most of the signs and symptoms. An associated cardiac disease like coronary artery disease may be present. Diastolic heart failure is common accompaniment that may be contributing the signs of right heart failure. Cardiac asthma can account for the new onset wheeze in a diabetic. Diabetic nephropathy with a possible cardiac pathology, cardiorenal syndrome is the most likely diagnosis. What is cardiorenal syndrome? Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a pathophysiologic entity involving the heart and kidneys where acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ may result in acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. CRS Type 1 reflects an abrupt worsening of cardiac function as is seen in acute cardiogenic shock or in a patient of congestive heart failure who has decompensated leading to acute kidney injury. CRS Type 2 comprises the group of patient with chronic congestive heart failure resulting in progressive chronic renal failure. CRS Type 3 consists of an abrupt worsening of kidney function (e.g., acute renal failure or glomerulonephritis) causing acute cardiac dysfunction (e.g., arrhythmia, ischemia, heart failure). CRS Type 4 refers to a state of chronic kidney disease (e.g., chronic interstitial nephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis) contributing to left ventricular hypertrophy and poor cardiac function. CRS Type 5 reflects a systemic condition like sepsis resulting in simultaneous cardiac and renal dysfunction. Our patient seems to have Cardiorenal syndrome Type 4. The biochemical parameters, ECG and echocardiography will be needed to make a firm diagnosis. Investigations revealed Hb 10.5g/dl, TLC 13300/cumm, DLC P91L7, platelets 2.78lac/cumm, Urine albumin 4+, granular casts+, blood urea 89mg/dL, serum creatinine 5.8mg/dL, serum Na 115mmol/L, serum K 3.1mmol/L, blood sugar fasting 102mg/dL, postprandial 156mg/dL,HbA1C 6.6%, serum bilirubin 0.5mg/dL, calcium 8.4mg/dL, phosphate 3.2mg/dL, iPTH 6.9pg/ml, CKMB 19mg/dL, serum iron 48  µg /dL, serum TIBC 243 µg/dL, transferrin saturation 19.7%, HBsAg negative, Anti HCV Negative, HIV Negative. Ultrasound revealed medical renal Disease with bilateral renal cysts, size of right kidney 8.5 cms left kidney 9.5 cms. Chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with prominent hilar markings. ECG showed T wave inversion in I, aVL,V4- V6 suggestive of strain pattern and left ventricular hypertrophy by voltage criteria. 2-D ECHO showed concentric LVH, No RWMA, EF 0.65,diastolic dysfunction, trivial TR and no AS/AR. Could this patient have nondiabetic renal disease? Is there an indication for kidney biopsy to confirm renal diagnosis in this patient? In a diabetic with kidney disease, it would be presumed that the proteinuria and azotemia is due to diabetic nephropathy especially if there is associated retinopathy and normal sized kidneys. There is no necessity to perform a kidney biopsy to confirm diabetic nephropathy as it would make no difference in the management. However, a diabetic is also prone to other nondiabetic renal diseases as in the general population that may need histopathological examination and warrant specific therapy. The clues that the renal failure is due to nondiabetic renal disease requiring a biopsy are summarised. Asymmetric kidneys or small sized kidneys are also clues to a nondiabetic renal disease but donot warrant biopsy. Our patient has near normal sized kidneys (right kidney small) with proteinuria and nonproliferative retinopathy, hence there is no requirement to biopsy. Retinopathy is present in 65% of cases of DMType2 with nephropathy, hence absence of retinopathy doesnot rule out nephropathy. Biopsy not indicated when Typical evolution of renal disease Concomitant retinopathy Biopsy should be considered when Renal manifestations are seen atypically (5-8 g/day) persists despite lowering of blood pressure * Only for Type 1 diabetes What are the stages of diabetic nephropathy? What stage is the patient in? The stages of diabetic nephropathy are as summarised in the table. Microalbuminuria is the earliest clinically detectable evidence of onset of nephropathy in a diabetic. About 20-25% of diabetics develop nephropathy in their lifetimes. The time after diagnosis has been validated after followup of Type1 diabetics and doesnot hold true for type 2 diabetics because the the time of onset of diabetes is not clearcut ina given case. It is not uncommon for clinically evident nephropathy to be present when type 2 diabetes is detected. Our patient has established renal failure, hence is in stage 5 diabetic nephropathy. Stage Glomerular filtration Albuminuria Blood pressure Time interval 1 Renal hyperfunction Elevated Absent Normal At diagnosis 2 Clinical latency High normal Absent 3Microalbuminuria Within the normal range 20-200 ÃŽ ¼g/min (30-300 mg/day) Rising within or above the normal range 5-15 years 4 Proteinuria (overt nephropathy) Decreasing 200 ÃŽ ¼g/min (300 mg/day) Increased 10-15 years 5 Renal failure Diminished Massive Increased 15-30 years What is the difference in nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes and type2 diabetes? Type 1 Diabetes with nephropathy Type 2 Diabetes with nephropathy Follows classical stages Hypertension is usually due to renoparenchymal aetiology Retinopathy 90-100 % concordance Non diabetic renal disease rare Less consistent Primary hypertension commoner (metabolic syndrome) Retinopathy 60% concordance Non diabetic renal disease 20-30% Define microalbuminuria. What is the relevance of finding microalbuminuria in a diabetic? Microabuminuria is defined as the presence of 30-300 mg albumin/24 hrs urine collection or 20-200microgm/mt in a timed urine sample in atleast 2/3 samples over 6 months in the absence of fever, infection, physical exercise, uncontrolled blood pressure or sugar, cardiac failure or haematuria. The importance of the finding is that it indicates endothelial dysfunction and is a predictor of diabetic nephropathy in 80% and 40% Type1 and Type2 diabetics. It is also is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and hypertension. In a given patient it is a clue to the clinician to institute aggressive control of blood pressure and hyperglycemia to prevent progression of diabetic nephropathy. The patient was managed with loop diuretics, plain insulin, inhaled bronchodilators, nitroglycerine drip and oxygen therapy. After initial stabilisation, he continued to have raised serum creatinine, hence was initiated on maintenance haemodialysis as a case of diabetic nephropathy with ESRD. What happens to the hyperglycemia with the onset of diabetic nephropathy? What treatment modifications are required to be made for glycemic control? With the onset of nephropathy, the insulin requirement decreases and patient becomes more prone to hypoglycaemia because the half life of insulin is prolonged, renal gluconeogenesis decreases, food intake is decreased, half life of oral hypoglycemics is prolonged, diabetic gastropathy delays gastric emptying and patient frequently vomits food due to uraemia. Infact if a well controlled diabetic develops episodes of unexplained hypoglycaemia, then one needs to look for evidence of nephropathy. Biguanides and long acting sulfonylureas are contraindicated in the presence of renal failure. Glimepride and glipizide may be used if serum creatinine is less than 2mg/dL. With more advanced renal failure, patient should be shifted to insulin therapy. What are the measures that can prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy? Large randomised control trials like IDNT and RENAAL have provided clear evidence that angiotensin receptor blockers help to prevent progression of diabetic nephropathy. The ADVANCE trial provided similar evidence for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. A target blood pressure of 130/80 mmof Hg is recommended for diabetics with proteinuria. Intensive treatment of hyperglycemia with tight blood sugar control has shown to reduce the incidence of micovascular complications including nephropatrhy in multiple studies like DCCT, UKPDS and ADVANCE. Cessation of smoking, avoidance of high protein diet and control of hyperlipidemia also seem to be beneficial. Once overt renal failure has set in then tight blood sugar control may not prevent further progression of nephropathy and the risk of hypoglycaemia increases, hence the physician should use discretion in prescribing antidiabetic therapy. What are the issues in dialysis of patients with diabetic nephropathy? Although diabetics with ESRD are candidates for all renal replacement therapy (RRT) options as nondiabetics, there are many factors that make it challenging to provide RRT in a diabetic. Associated coronary artery disease and diastolic dysfunction, high incidence of fistula failure due to atherosclerosed vessels, heparin (given during haemodialysis) related bleed due to associated retinopathy, decreased osmotic gradient and poor clearance in CAPD, poor tolerance to uraemic symptoms, diabetic cystopathy and gastroparesis, preponderance to low turnover bone disease, higher incidence of infections, autonomic neuropathy, elderly age group of patients with attendant social and logistic issues all contribute to poor survival in diabetics compared to nondiabetics. Final diagnosis Diabetic nephropathy in end stage renal disease with Cardiorenal syndrome Type 4 Commentary Diabetic nephropathy has become the commonest cause of chronic kidney disease in both the western world and developing countries. Classical stages of diabetic nephropathy described in Type 1 diabetics may not be evident in the progression of kidney disease associated with Type 2 diabetics. Measures to prevent progression of diabetic nephropathy should be aggressively instituted. Patients of diabetes Type2 with kidney disease additionally have associated cardiac disease making the management of such patients challenging. Cardiorenal syndromes encountered in various situations have been recently described that have improved our understanding of the complex pathophysiology and may open new avenues of treatment in the future. Take home message Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of ESRD and developing countries are likely to face an epidemic in the next two decades. Cardiorenal syndrome (Types1-5) is a recently described pathophysiological condition that has furthered our understanding of the complex interrelation between heart failure and kidney failure in diverse clinical settings. Why Are Informal Networks Important? Why Are Informal Networks Important? Introduction Informal organizations affect decisions within the formal organization but either, are omitted from the formal scheme or are not consistent with it. They consist of interpersonal relationships that are not mandated by the rules of the formal organization but arise spontaneously in order to satisfy individual members needs Ever since the Hawthorne Studies (Mayo, 1949) and the development of the Human Relations school of thought, there has been a widespread tendency towards adopting a less scientific view of organisations. There has also been a relaxation of the assumption of rational behaviour by employees and behaviour that is strictly in tune with the goals of management and the rest of the organisation. As Mayo states: In every department that continues to operate, the workers have, whether aware of it or not, formed themselves into a group with appropriate customs, duties, routines, even rituals; and management succeeds (or fails) in proportion, as it is accepted without reservation by the group as authority and leader (Mayo, 1949) This indicates that individuals in organisations do not stop being social beings while at work. This in turn relates to the very core of the essential question of how to define an organisation. The underlying assumption in this paper will be that organisations are basically a web of coalitions and that coalition building is an important dimension of all organisational life (Morgan, 1997). In consequence, various approaches have been undertaken in order to try and understand organisations. By mainly focusing on communication as the vehicle of social structures, sociologists have described organisations as structures of social interactions in a specific organisational context or culture (White, 1970). Psychologists relaxed and redefined the assumption of rational behaviour in order to understand and describe the needs of individuals in organisations. This has led to a multitude of ways to describe organisational structures, often through metaphors (Morgan, 1997). There has been a shift in the traditional view of the role of the manager and his or her workday (Mintzberg, 1973). By not relying on the normative division of work into planning, organising, coordinating and controlling, Mintzberg suggested that the workday of a manager was much less structured and based on intuition rather than formal decision making processes. What becomes apparent regardless of the method of analysis of the underlying premise is that no organisation can be described or mapped in a satisfactory manner using just formal organisational methods, let alone be managed on that basis. The Structure of Informal Networks It is important to present the concepts associated with intra-organisational social networks. The optimal terminology to describe the informal organisation depends on the purpose of the analysis. There is no one best way to interpret informal networks (Mintzberg, 1989). Informal networks in organisations are likened with the nervous system of a living organism, whereas the bones represent the formal organisation (Krackhardt and Hanson, 1993). Staying with the analogy of the human body, a superficial comparison can be made between the skeleton and the nervous system, and informal/ formal networks within organisations to help understand the function of these networks. The formal organisation is compared to a skeleton which is a strong and rigid frame and the informal organisation is compared to the nervous system which is fragile yet flexible. The skeleton is visible, whereas the nervous system is an entity with no structure without definite subdivisions. Without determined, close obse rvation, it might be difficult to recognise (Han, 1983). Why do Informal Networks Exist? Informal networks exist in every organisation and are an inevitable function within them. Individuals do not stop being social beings when placed in a formal work setting. When highlighting some of the motives for the creation and maintenance of informal networks within organisations, it is important to distinguish between unconscious and conscious reasons for their existence. Affiliation needs: To satisfy the need for belonging to a group, individuals will tend to join networks of friendship and support. As a result, a part of ones individuality is sacrificed to conform to group norms. Identity and self-esteem: Belonging to a group or informal network can develop, enhance and confirm an individuals sense of identity as a result of the personal interaction. Social needs: Traditional formal networks within organisations often offer little room for emotions, feelings or sharing of personal thought, informal networks serve as an agent for structuring and supporting a shared social reality. By relying on this social reality, individuals can reduce uncertainty and stress. Informal groups also help members to compensate for feeling of dissatisfaction with the formal leader, organization or official communication system (Han, 1983). Defence mechanism: In the face of perceived threat or general uncertainty, group cohesion can act as a defence mechanism to reduce (perceived) uncertainty and strengthen each individuals ability to respond to the threat. Risk reduction: Through diluting blame and aggregating praise, a group of workers perceive risk to a lesser extent than they would as individuals. Thus unconscious efforts of individuals to control the conditions of their existence will lead to the creation of informal groups. In addition, often more practical and very clear unambiguous conscious reasons for the creation and development of informal networks also exist. The need to know: One of the primary characteristics of the informal structure within organisations is their communications network, often referred to as the grapevine. Studies have shown grapevine communication to be both fast and surprisingly accurate (Crampton et al., 1998). And in situations when information is critically needed by an individual to perform the task at hand, the grapevine can prove and efficient vehicle for news and information, thus bypassing the formal channels of communication (Mintzberg, 1973). Politics: One of the more conscious reasons for the use of informal networks within organisations is that employees might choose to use informal channels of communication to influence colleagues or superiors in order to gain an advantage in organisational politics. Politics refers to individual or group behaviour, that is informal, ostensibly parochial, typically divisive, and above all, in the technical sense, illegitimate, sanctioned neither by formal authority, accepted ideology, nor certified expertise (though it may exploit any one of these) (Mintzberg, 1983) What is the Informal Organisation? Chester Bernard, a pioneering management theorist who studying organisational behaviour, in the classic The Functions of the Executive, described the informal organisation as any joint personal activity without conscious joint purpose, even though it contributes to joint results. Thus, the informal relationships established between groups of colleagues going for a drink after work on a Friday may actually help in the achievement of reaching organisational goals (Barnard, 1938). More recently the informal organisation has been described as a network of personal and social relations not established or required by the formal organization but arising spontaneously as people associate with one another (Davis and Newstrom, 1985). Thus, informal relationships do not appear on the organisational chart but do include relationships such as chatting together, having lunch or even getting together outside of work hours to socialise together. Informal Group Dynamics at Work Managers are often not aware that within every organisation there are group pressures that influence and regulate employee behaviour, performance and motivation. Informal groups can form their own code of ethics and an unspoken set of standards in establishing acceptable behaviour. Manager needs to be aware of the power and influence informal groups have and that they will almost inevitably form if the opportunity arises. These groups can have an extremely powerful impact on the achievement of organisational effectiveness. However the influence of these groups can be controlled and resisted if handled efficiently. The impact of informal behaviour within the formal organisational setting depends on the norms that the group adheres to. As this is the case it can be surmised that the informal organisation can make the formal organisation either more or less effective depending on how it is managed and controlled and interacts within a company. References BARNARD, C. I. 1938. The functions of the executive, Cambridge, Harvard university press. CRAMPTON, S. M., HODGE, J. W. MISHRA, J. M. 1998. The Informal Communication Network: Factors Influencing Grapevine Activity. Public Personnel Management. DAVIS, K. NEWSTROM, J. 1985. Human Behavior at Work. New York: Mc Graw Hill. HAN, P. E. 1983. The Informal Organization Youve Got to Live With. Supervisory Management 28. KRACKHARDT, D. HANSON, J. R. 1993. Informal networks : the company behind the chart, Harvard Business Review. MAYO, E. 1949. The social problems of an industrial civilization. Routhledge. MINTZBERG, H. 1973. The nature of managerial work, New York ; London, Harper and Row. MINTZBERG, H. 1983. Power in and around organizations, Englewood Cliffs ; London, Prentice-Hall. MINTZBERG, H. 1989. Mintzberg on management : inside our strange world of organizations, New York London, Free Press ; Collier Macmillan. MORGAN, G. 1997. Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications. SIMON, H. A. 1976. Administrative Behavior. New York: The Free Press. WHITE, H. C. 1970. Chains of Opportunity: System Models of Mobility in Organizations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Response to Article about Cystic Fibrosis Essay -- Biology

Cystic Fibrosis - Summary of Article It has been known for quite some time that CFTR is a cAMP regulated chloride ion channel whose mutation is intimately linked to cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the abnormality in the chloride ion channels is not the only biochemical peculiarity associated with the disease. Of particular interest to researchers is the finding that sodium ion (Na+) absorption in the cells of CF patients is both elevated and positively related to the cAMP concentration, whereas, in normal cells, cAMP concentration is inversely related to the rate of Na+ absorption. The malfunction of the Na+ pump becomes immediately apparent, for the primary symptom of CF is a chronic bacterial infection of the lungs, due to the abnormally low viscosity of the fluid which bathes the cellular epithelium; by pumping ions into the airway, rather than into the cell, a thermodynamically unfavorable concentration gradient of sodium ions is is established, in which the airway is hypotonic and osmosis is kinetically favored. In the case of CF, the local chloride pump is inoperative, and the sodium pumps are incredibly overactive, importing Na+ from the airway, and taking water out of the fluid inside the lungs in the process. Therefore, is is inappropriate to place the sole responsibility for the low fluid viscosity directly upon the mutation of the CFTR protein. Studies have demonstrated that the elevated Na+ absorption is not due to an overexpression of the Na+ transport protein, ENaC, in the membrane, nor can cAMP sensitivity be linked to a genetically mutated ENaC. The possibility that the altered CFTR indirectly led to the Na+ channel phenomena by altering the functionality of normal ENaC formed the basis of a hypothesis which ... ...The use of amiloride as a form of treatment is significant because amiloride actually helps the body in correcting the chloride and sodium ion concentration, thereby rehydrating the cells and thinning the mucus. This process differs from current treatments which loosen the mucus or dilute it so the patients can rids their lungs of the infectious substance more easily. Works Cited 1.) Purves, WK, Orians GH, Heller HC. Life: the Science of Biology. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc.; 1995. Chapter 15, Genetic Disease and Modern Medicine; pages 334-352. 2.) "CF-FAQ Part 1." Ed. Ron Trueworthy. CF-WEB. Internet. 10 September 1996. 3.) S. H. Wright, interview by group members. Tucson, Arizona, 22 October 1996. 4.) M. J. Stutts, C. M. Canessa, J. C. Olsen, M. Hamrick, J. A. Cohn, B. C. Rossier, R. C. Boucher, Science, v. 269, 11 August 1995, pages 847-850.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Comparing Rugby and Football :: Compare Contrast Comparison

Comparing Rugby and Football The thick, broad-shouldered athlete breathes heavily and grunts with each step as he and his teammates push mightily against the opposition. His arms are locked over his teammates' shoulders, all of their heads down. The two teams are pushing against each other like two moose fighting over territory. He looks down to see the ball, sitting just in front of his feet. If he could just hook it with his foot and heave it to his teammate behind him†¦ This is what every player in a scrum is thinking while they fight each other for possession. Rugby is the true sport of men, because you wear no pads, and it is even more violent than football; however, football requires that you wear pads, thus being the true sport of want-to-be men. The rules of these similar yet vastly different games are extremely complex, so only the basics are necessary to distinguish the better sport. In football, the primary rule is that you must advance the ball forward by throwing it or running with it. Once a player with the ball is downed, the entire team lines up again, and the ball is snapped to the quarterback. The short pause in-between each down may not seem significant, but it definitely takes its toll on the excitement. In rugby, however, the primary rule is that you can only advance the ball by running with, kicking, or passing it. With passing, though, you can only pass the ball backwards or directly to your side, never forward. Like football, you score by running the ball into the endzone or by kicking it through the uprights. Also, you must touch the ball to the ground for it to count, and it is worth five points. When kicking, the ball can be kicked from anywhere spontaneously. If it passes through the uprights, it is worth three points, as in football. The equipment for the two sports is widely different, with football requiring much more. In football, players must wear a large set of pads, covering most of their body, and a masked helmet. The ball is made up of an inflated rubber bladder, surrounded by stitched leather, and it appears ellipsoidal in shape. Most players now wear cleated or spiked shoes, but flat-soles are often worn for artificial turf surfaces. But rugby, being the true sport of men, uses no pads of helmets.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Independence In Latin America Essay -- essays research papers

"Independence of Latin America" In the 1800's, Latin American countries won independence, but many new independent countries had trouble creating strong, stable governments. The Creoles played an important role in the independent movements. These countries won their independence through strong leaders and many other factors. As soon as these countries won their independence from Spain and Portugal, they did not want to return the way they did. Many countries revolted, we even find out that the United States had something to do with it. Behind many of these countries' independence, stands and list of causes and effects. One of the first causes of the Independence of Latin America was the Creoles. Since Spain had rule over the Latin American countries, the Creoles were one of many groups that led the struggle for Latin Independence. Another group, who were known as the Mestizos, revolted against Spain in Peru. Many of these Indians remembered how the Spanish conquered them over 300 years ago. It didn't last much because their leader Tupac Amaru was executed, but the slaves saw independence as a way of freedom. These groups were not the only cause of the Independence. Another cause that led to the independence of Latin America, was the French Revolution. With these enlightenment ideas, the people of Latin America were able to have their own government that protected their interest and gave them freedom. These countries liked the idea of having natural rights, libert...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Consumer Attitude Toward Green Marketing

LITERATURE REVIEW Some literatures were reviewed in the course of this study. These include the previous researches which are as: 1. Sourabh Bhattacharya (2011) conducted research on â€Å"Consumer Attitude Towards Green Marketing In India†. According to him, Marketing is the process which begins with identifying the needs of the consumer and further includes product development, delivering products to the consumer and providing after sales service. The conventional marketing process is not specifically concerned or bothered about environmental safety.The contemporary green marketing concept, on the other hand, analyzes, ecological compatibility of the product. It emphasizes on the formulation of marketing strategies in conformation with environmental safety or protection. Conventional marketing paid little attention to the pollution caused to the environment from the actual usage of the products, the raw materials used in manufacturing or from the packaging materials used. Co nventional marketing concentrated on profit taking, while green marketing maintains the philosophy that doing business for a longer period is not possible without protecting the environmental.He concluded that the green marketers in India should carry out heavy promotional campaigns, because a majority of the Indian consumers are not sure about the quality of the green products. They are indecisive whether to pay premium for purchasing green products. They are highly suspicious regarding the real greenness of the eco-friendly products and tend to search for more information before buying. All these have a negative impact on the success of green marketing in India. Therefore, the green marketers must do heavy promotion, so that the target customers are convinced about the qualitative aspects of the green products.This is very important as the Indian consumers are in general price-sensitive and green products are costlier. If they are not convinced with the quality of the green produc ts, they remain suspicious and will not be willing to pay premium. 2. Meenakshi Verma & Anuj Verma (2011) conducted research on â€Å"Green Marketing-Strategy & Scope Of Growth In Indian Market†, According to him, Green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environ mentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production rocess, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Green products balance environmental compatibility with performance, affordability, and convenience. They are typically durable, non-toxic, recyclable, and are often made from recycled materials. Green products have minimal packaging, and should carry low environmental impact. Green marketing not only focuses on advertisements and promotion of products with environmental characteristics, but it pervades all the activities of designing, production, packaging and promoting greener products. Green ma rketing thrives of the underlying philosophy ‘Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.It was concluded that as the demand for green products undoubtedly exist in growing economies, Green marketing provides an opportunity to the companies to increase their market-share by introducing eco-friendly products. Stricter environmental regulations across the world, growing consumer preference for eco-friendly companies, and the inherent cost advantages in lowering toxic waste are encouraging industries big and small to clean up. The research has revealed that awareness level among the consumers is pretty high and they are willing to adopt green products.However, the manufacturers need to improve the quality of the product and its after sales service. The consumers are concerned about the global warming and majority of them believe that green products shall help in reducing this cause however they are not overly committed to improving their environment and may be looking to lay too much responsibil ity on industry and government. Though it’s the responsibility of the firm to produce products, which are having minimum impact on the environment, but ultimately it’s the consumer who is having responsibility to use eco-friendly products. 3. Dr.Priyank Azad (2011) wrote an article â€Å"Green Marketing: The Innovative Mantra of Marketing†. This article discusses the notion of green marketing, its initiatives, challenges and probable strategies as conclusion. The mounting awareness about/on disturbed ecological balance and environmental consciousness has changed the behavioral patterns both in the individuals and business across the world. The apprehension towards global warming, harmful pollutants, non-biodegradable sold waste has sharply risen in the past decade. Now is the time of recyclable, non-toxic and environment-friendly green products that can help in preserving our nvironment and keeping it healthier. This has led the marketers to take a shift in prac tices and incorporates the concept of ‘Think Green’. The term ‘sustainability’ has become the keyword of this competitive era. As the resources are scarce and human wants are infinite, this broadening gap has augmented the interest among the consumers all over the world regarding fortification of environment. This increasing awareness and environmental consciousness has transformed the behavioral blueprints both in individuals and businesses.Now there is an era of recyclable, non-toxic and environment responsive green goods. This led to green marketing which speaks of mounting market for sustainable and socially accountable products and services. It contains a wide range of tasks such as product adjustment, transforming the production process, changed advertising, modifications in packaging, etc. , that aims at reducing the harmful impact of products and their consumption and disposal on the environment. Despite this world awareness, there are numerous pote ntial challenges and issues that are required to be surmounted. . Andrew Franklin Prince, Reuban Jacob and Jerrin M Philipose (2011) conducted a study on â€Å"Green Marketing: Recaliberation and Disposal of Exhausted Product Earns for Itself†. In this era of technologically-advanced educated world, products developed considering ecological aspects have more mileage than the regular products. Consumers’ awareness of proper disposal of exhausted products is need of the hour. The products demanded by the customers could be recaliberated to be used further as homogeneous or differentiated products.Meanwhile, the products which cross the bar of recaliberation could be disposed by the manufacturer. However, product disposal, is yet to find a prominent ground in India. The culture of corporate organizations trying to bag the sensible customers by providing the right kind of product with a tag line of ‘eco-friendly’, has just kick started. At this juncture one ma y think, is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) a good initiative only in papers? It was concluded that the strategy could bring revelation in the market. It is high time that we emphasize on the concept that â€Å"marketing begins and ends with manufacturer†.This however would need the background support of customers as well as policy makers for the effective implementation of the strategy. The flow of demand is expected to develop the customers’ buying preference for particular manufacturers who are following this strategy. Brand building effort could also be practiced to the maximum. The era of green market could be enhanced to the utmost. The waste in the Mother Nature will be minimized in the coming era, which shall provide better products for the better customers. Thus, providing recaliberation and disposal will earn itself for the company. 5.Deeksha Dave & Kartik Dave (2011) conducted a study on â€Å"Environmental Management Practices In The Hospitality Indu stry†. With their massive resource consumption and waste generation, big hotels quite literall function and pollute like a mini city. Hotels consume resources like energy, water, food, paper and pollute the environment in the form of smoke, noise and chemical pollutants. Keeping the above issues in view, the industry has come forward to save the environment and is playing a major role in environment protection by developing awareness and adopting environmental friendly practices.Since hotels occupy a central place in the tourism industry and its development does impact the environment considerably, it is believed that hotels should be more proactive in their managerial response concerning environmental performance. Keeping this in mind the study explores the environmental management practices among hotels operating in Udaipur. The results have shown that although hotel companies are concerned with environmental management issues, many are not proactive enough in their response s and prefer to only take management initiatives that have considerable financial benefits for their business.Focus has been mainly on cost-cutting management measures such as minimizing energy use and water conservation as this contributes directly towards a hotel’s profitability. 6. Dr. Ashish Chandra, Anoop Pandey and Navneet Kaur(2010) conducted a research on â€Å"Green Marketing: A tool to combat Environmental Challenges†. In this paper, the authors had taken a little attempt to academically examine environmental and green marketing issues and gray areas.This article introduces the terms and concepts of green marketing, briefly discuss why going green is important and also examine some of the reasons that organizatios are adopting a green marketing philosophy. He concluded that a successful marketer is one, who not only convinces the consumer, but also involves the consumer in marketing his products and delivering the services. Green marketing should not be consi dered as just one more approach to marketing, but has to be pursued with much greater vigor, as it has an environmental and social dimension to it.With the threat of global warming looming large, it is extremely important that green marketing becomes the norm rather than an exception or just a fad. Recycling of paper, metals, plastics, etc. , in a safe and environmentally harmless manner should become much more systematized and universal. It has to become the general norm to use energy-efficient lamps and other electrical goods. 7. Sunita Dahiya, Dr. Amita Charan & Vijay Kumar (2010) conducted a research on â€Å"Green Marketing, Emission Trading and Carbon Crediting In India†.Changing trade pattern, global recession, financial crisis, stock fluctuations, corporate governance, corporate laws, and many other upcoming global challenges are truly difficult to manage for corporate, environmentalists, economists, experts, manufacturers and even administrators at the top. Ecologist s, economists and financial planners are continuously debating for global sustainable development and steady economic growth. Most of the intellectuals and eminent personalities are releasing it is a right time to become â€Å"Globally Green† and protect environment by reducing pollution and emission.It was concluded that green marketing covers more issues than a firm’s marketing practices only. Green marketing is a requirement for our survival on this earth. India can set standards for others to lead in the area of carbon crediting and trading. From decades we are exploiting natural resources but now because of natural calamities: like global warming, Acidic rains, Tsunami, Earthquakes, floods, Drought and green house gases, we are realizing importance of green marketing.Globally there are number of environmental trading markets as have been explained above which provide for balance in period of environment and effect corporate competitiveness and profitability in ter ms of standards and final finished products. 8. Oyewole, P. (2001). Social Costs of Environmental Justice Associated with the Practice of Green Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(3), Feb, pp. 239-252. This paper presents a conceptual link among green marketing, environmental justice, and industrial ecology. It argues for greater awareness of environmental justice in the practice for green marketing.In contrast with the type of costs commonly discussed in the literature, the paper identified another type of costs, termed ‘costs with positive results,' that may be associated with the presence of environmental justice in green marketing. A research agenda is finally suggested to determine consumers' awareness of environmental justice, and their willingness to bear the costs associated with it. 9. Merilanen, S. , Moisander, J. & Personen, S. (2000). The Masculine Mindset of Environmental Management and Green Marketing. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(3), pp. 51-162 . Environmental management systems and green marketing programmes have gained increasing popularity in western market economies. They are viewed as cost-efficient, effective and just means of tackling problems associated with the impact of economic activity on the environment. It is argued in this article, however, that these optimistic views are based on a number of ideas, images and metaphors that retain many androcentric and inadequate assumptions about self, society and nature that may be incompatible with long-term environmental protection goals. 0. Prothero, A. & Fitchett, J. A. (2000). Greening Capitalism: Opportunities for Green Community. Journal of Macromarketing, 20(1), pp. 46-56. In this paper, the authors argue that greater ecological enlightenment can be secured through capitalism by using the characteristics of commodity culture to further progress environmental goals. The authors reject both naive ecological romanticism and revolutionary idealism on the grounds that they fail to offer any pragmatic basis by which greater environmental responsibility can be achieved.Drawing on the now well-established theoretical tradition of post-Marxist cultural criticism, the authors offer a conceptual justification for the development and implementation of a green commodity discourse. For this to be achieved and implemented, prevailing paradigms regarding the structure, nature, and characteristics of capitalism must be revised. Marketing not only has the potential to contribute to the establishment of more sustainable forms of society but, as a principle agent in the operation and proliferation of commodity discourse, also has a considerable responsibility to do so. 11.Prothero, A. (1998). Green Marketing: The ‘Fad' That Won't Slip Slide Away. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 507-513. The author introduces several papers discussed in the July 1998 issue of ‘Journal of Marketing Management' focusing on green marketing. This includ es; a citation of the need to review existing literature on green marketing, an empirical study of United States and Australian marketing managers, a description of what a green alliance look like in practice in Great Britain, ecotourism and definitions of green marketing. 12. Kilbourne, W. E. & Beckman, S. C. (1998).Review and Critical Assessment of Research on Marketing and the Environment. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 513-533. This paper provides a review and categorization of the environmentally related research published in the major English language marketing journals over the period from 1971 to 1997. It traces the development from the early research which focused predominantly on the characterization of the â€Å"green† consumer, conceptualization of environmental consciousness, environmentally related behaviours such as recycling, and attitudes towards environmental problems such as pollution.This was followed by a period in which energy conserva tion, legislation, and public policy issues were added to the agenda which remained predominantly managerialist in perspective. While the same issues were studied within the 1990s, the research agenda was expanded again to include broader issues such as environmental values and institutions. Most recently, the macro issues of sustainable marketing and its relationship to the dominant social paradigm have been introduced into the literature.The paper concludes by arguing that the examination of the macro issues from an interdisciplinary perspective is necessary for further development of marketing thought in this area, and that a synthesis of the macro and micro perspectives is necessary for effective and enduring public policy regarding the marketing/environmental relationship. 13. Walker, R. H. & Hanson, D. J. (1998). Green Marketing and Green Places: A Taxonomy for the Destination Marketer. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 623-640.This paper highlights and discuss es green/environmental implications and imperatives associated with destination marketing as distinct from those related to product and services marketing. A comparative taxonomy has been developed to illustrate these, and to provide a framework for discussing their relevance, with reference to the particular case of Tasmania as a tourism destination. 14. Kilbourne, W. E. (1998). Green Marketing: A Theoretical Perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 641-656. The author discusses the failure of green marketing to move beyond the limitations of the prevailing paradigm.While there are nascent macro developments in marketing thought that might lead to a truly green marketing considering sustainability, holistic thought, and the limitations of the prevailing paradigm, they remain thus far on the periphery of the discipline. This will remain so until a broader, multi-disciplinary approach incorporating the multiple dimensions of the DSP is developed. The author ide ntifies areas that must be examined for their effect in the marketing/environment relationship, namely economic, political and technological dimensions of the cultural frame of reference. 5. .Fisk, G. (1998). Green Marketing: Multiplier for Appropriate Technology Transfer? Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 657-677. The effectiveness of â€Å"reward and reinforcement† strategy used in marketing activity is compared to a strategy of â€Å"mutual coercion mutually agreed upon† as a means for accelerating acceptance of environmentally appropriate production and consumption technologies. The risk and reward consequences of green marketing tactics are traced to identify their implications in pursuing globally sustainable development.Together, reward and reinforcement strategies and coercive regulatory activities are more promising for attaining sustainable development than either one alone. 16. Grove, S. J. & Fisk, R. P. (1996). Going green in the Service Sec tor. European Journal of Marketing, 30(5), pp. 56-67. The authors attempted to bring attention to the general and pervasive exclusion of service industries from discussions of green marketing practices. They explore why circumstance may exist, and provided arguments to support the adoption of environmental practices by services providers.Also in trying to identify how the service sector can contribute to the preservation of the environment, a greening of services matrix was presented. This matrix was designed to demonstrate through hypothetical examples the many ways that service industries can reduce, reuse or recycle resources, either collectively or individually, and thereby embrace the green initiative. Finally, the authors submitted a total quality/ benchmarking approach as a means by which services organizations may adopt environmental practices. 17.Menon and Menon (1997) Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular import in the modern market. This concept h as enabled for the re-marketing and packaging of existing products which already adhere to such guidelines. Additionally, the development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line, lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such marketing techniques as will be explained are as a direct result of movement in the minds of the consumer market.As a result of this businesses have increased their rate of targeting consumers who are concerned about the environment. These same consumers through their concern are interested in integrating environmental issues into their purchasing decisions through their incorporation into the process and content of the marketing strategy for whatever product may be required. 18. Banerjee, S. , Gulas, C. S. and Iyer E. (1995). Shades of green: A multidimensional analysis of environmental advertising. Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 21-32.This paper discusses how businesses have increased their rate of targeting green consumers, those who are concerned about the environment and allow it to affect their purchasing decisions. The paper identifies the three particular segments of green consumers and explores the opportunities businesses have with green marketing. The paper also examines the message of green marketing and describes the deceit of ‘green washing'. The paper considers three green campaigns of the New Leaf Paper Company, the Courier Corporation and Clorox bleach and concludes that green marketing is something that will continuously grow in both practice and demand.

Friday, August 16, 2019

International Maritime Organization

Structure International Maritime Organization (IMO) is an agency in the United Nations that is responsible for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution. The IMO is broken up into an Assembly, a Council and five other committees: Maritime Safety Committee, Marine Environment Protection Committee, Legal Committee, Technical Co-operation Committee, and the Facilitation Committee. The Assembly is the overseer of the Organization, it consists of member states (countries that have adopted the IMO) and meets once every two years.It is also responsible for voting the budget and determining the financial status of the Organization. The Council is elected by the Assembly for a two term period. It consists of ten countries with the largest interest in providing international shipping services, ten countries with the largest interest in international seaborne trade, and twenty countries which have special interests in maritime navigation. Their functions are to co-ordinate the activities of the Committees and receive reports and proposals from the Committees and submit them to the Assembly.They also appoint the Secretary General of the IMO which currently is Koji Sekimizu (Japan) and enter into agreements about their connections with other Organizations. The Maritime Safety Committee’s functions are to consider matter relating to aids of navigation, construction and equipment of vessels, rules of the road, handling of dangerous cargo, maritime safety procedures, marine casualty investigations, and more. The Marine Environment Protection Committee determines any matter that controls the prevention and pollution of ships. It especially makes regulations to ensure their enforcement.The Legal Committee deals with all legal matters within the IMO. The Technical Co-operation Committee considers matters that implement the IMO as the executive Organization in the technical co-operation field. The Facilitation Committee eliminates unnecessar y regulations in international shipping, by implementing all aspects of the Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic. History of the IMO When IMO was adopted in 1948 its first task was to make a new version of SOLAS. The first task was the biggest and so far most important the IMO has had to deal with.After SOLAS, it focused on maritime traffic, load lines, and pollution. Pollution has recently become the major focus of the IMO and in response to the pollution issue created the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. In 1988 GMDSS was adopted so now a ship in distress anywhere in the world can be guaranteed assistance. The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) improved standards and gave IMO power to check Government actions and record all of this information. Cite: www. imo. org

Thursday, August 15, 2019

How Technology and Environment Might Influence the Structure of an Organisation

Student Name: Adeniyi Adebowale Module: Principles of Organising and Managing Student Number: 500188225 Due Date: 15th of March, 2010 Title: Explain how technology and environment might influence the structure of an organisation; support your answer with examples. Paragraphs: 25 Charles Perrow (1974) suggests that there are four types of technology that determines an organisation's most effective structure and success in the market. The following are the types of technology: Non-routine Technology are characterized by high task variability and low task analyzability, examples include tasks performed by research chemist, advertising agencies, high-tech product designers and top management teams. With this type of technology, an organization has to develop structure that allows employees to respond quickly to manage exceptions and create new solutions like an organic structure. Engineering Technology is characterized by high task variability and high task analyzability, examples of these includes civil engineering companies that build roads and bridges another example includes motor manufacturers that produce customized cars. Craft Technology is characterized by low task variability and low task analyzability, examples includes an accountant preparing a tax return and a plumber fitting a bath or shower. Robbins (1993) further argued that technology has and will continue to influence growth and development in organization. Technology has made a fundamental impact in the education sector, providing a competitive advantage that has come to be essential to many organizations. For example, education institutes must also use technology to improve the educational learning process. In the past decade, computers and the Internet have changed the way in which education can be delivered to students since it is currently possible to engage in distance education through the Internet. There are two means in which technologies can be used in delivering education to students and they are listed below: Synchronous Technologies is a mode of online delivery where all participants are â€Å"present† at the same time requiring a timetable to be organized. Web Conferencing is an example of synchronous technology. Asynchronous Technologies is a mode of online delivery where participants access course materials on their own schedule. Students are not required to be together at the same time. Message board forums, e-mail and recorded video are examples of asynchronous technology. draw:frame} {draw:frame} Source: Andrzej Huczynski and David Buchanan (2001), page 36. Placid, Randomized Placid, Clustered Disturbed, Reactive Turbulent Fields {draw:frame} The figure below outlines the suggested points in details: Source: Andrzej Huczynski and David Buchanan (2001), page 49. Source: Andrzej Huczynski and David Buchanan (2001), page 47 References Stephen P. Robbins, 1993, Or ganizational Behaviour, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall International, U. S. A. Stephen P. Robbins, 1994, Management, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall International, U. S. A. David Faulkner, 2002, Strategy_: Critical Perspective on Business and Management_, Volume 1, U. K. Lloyd S. Baird, James E. Post and John F. Mahon, 1990, Management: Function and Responsibilities, Harper Collins Publisher, U. S. A. Harold J. Leavitt, Louis R. Pondy, and David M Boje, 1988, Readings in Managerial Psychology, 4th Edition, The University of Chicago Press Ltd. U. S. A. Charles Perrow, 1974, Organizational Analysis: A Social View, Tavistock Publications, London, U. K. Alan Fox, 1974, Beyond Contract: Work, Power and Trust Relations (Society Today and Tomorrow), Faber Publishing, London, U. K.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

A Tale of Two Cities Character Carton Analysis Essay

In the novel, A Tale of Two Cities, Sydney Carton’s character went through a series of decisions that affected the outcome of the novel. Sydney Carton looks almost looks exactly the same as Charles Darnay, but the main difference, was that Darnay was sober a majority of the time, and he cared and worked for his life. Lucie, the love of Carton’s life, had fallen in love with Darnay. After Carton realized that Lucie would have picked him if he hadn’t been so slavish and drunk a majority of the time, he decided to change. He knew he had already lost Lucie, but he thought that maybe he could still use the rest of his life for the better. His decision to change was not state out right, but the events in the novel, led the reader to the conclusion, that he turned around his life for Lucie. At the beginning of the novel, when Carton is first introduced, he is sitting in the courtroom staring at the ceiling. The author made it seem like Carton did not care what was going on in the courtroom, but later the reader discovers that Carton was listening to the case the entire time. Carton had heard a flaw in the prosecutor’s plan, and he gave a note to Stryver, resulting in an acquittal, which Stryver had received full credit. As the reader continues reading, it is later discovered that Carton is the hand guiding Stryver, while Stryver is just the image. Carton never did anything for himself; because he was too busy helping others. Later in the novel, Carton planned an almost full proof plan to help Charles Darnay. Even though he had made the decision to change, and think out a plan, he never lost the characteristic of putting others before himself. Although he took the place of the Darnay, before his death, he took it for Lucie. As Carton’s character is slowly unfolded throughout the second book, the reader can conclude that Carton dislikes Darnay. Carton dislikes Darnay, because Darnay is the constant reminder to Carton of what he could have been like, if he had not made bad choices in law school and made good choices in general. Whenever Carton came over to the Manette’s home, and was in the presence of Darnay, he was even more quiet then usual. However, when he decided to turn his life around, he buried his hatred for Darnay, and treated him with respect. Even with this decision, carton could not have Lucie, but she accepted him as part of her own family, and he was content with that. At the end of the novel, Carton takes time to plan out a five-step plan to save Darnay, and ends up sacrificing himself for a man he use to hate. Part of Carton’s old personality, was that he always wore his emotions on his sleeve. He thought he was useless and he lacked self-esteem. This was shown throughout the beginning of the book, for he was a drunk resembling his worthless life. He didn’t speak in the conversation unless it was a topic that he truly cared for. Right before his change, he professed his love to Lucie. After his change, he learned to hide his emotions. Although he may not like Darnay, he kept those feelings to himself. He stayed mysterious in Book III, in order for his plan to be successful and his appearance to be surprising. The character, Sydney Carton, was given a second chance as their life was resurrected. Lucie Manette is responsible for the resurrection of Sydney Carton, for she was the inspiration that got Sydney Carton off his feet. Carton twice saves Charles Darnay even though he disliked him. Carton described himself as a wasted creature but Lucy explained that she had faith in him and that he was capable of doing better things. He ended up promising that he would do anything for her, sacrificing his life for Charles Darnay. By hiding his emotions, he was able to carry out a plan without anyone attempting to stop him. Carton strived to become a better person and change his life around because Lucie believed in him. Because of the change in Carton, Darnay’s life is spared and Carton dies with dignity, knowing his life was not a waste.